Andrews, L. F. (1972). The six keys to normal occlusion. American Journal of Orthodontics, 62, 296–309. [DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9416(72)90268-0] [PubMed: 4505873]


Angle, E. H. (1899). Classification of malocclusion. Dental Cosmos, 41, 248–64.


British Standards Institute (1983). Glossary of Dental Terms (BS 4492). London: BSI.


Daniels, C. and Richmond, S. (2000). The development of the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Journal of Orthodontics, 27, 149–62. [DOI: 10.1093/ortho/27.2.149] [PubMed: 10867071]


Flemming, P. S. (2008). The aetiology of malocclusion. Orthodontic Update, 1, 16–21.

An easy-to-understand discussion of aetiology.


Harradine, N. W. T., Pearson, M. H., and Toth, B. (1998). The effect of extraction of third molars on late lower incisor crowding: a randomized controlled clinical trial. British Journal of Orthodontics, 25, 117–22. [DOI: 10.1093/ortho/25.2.117] [PubMed: 9668994]


Ireland, A. J. (2014). An index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN). Journal of Orthodontics, 41, 77–83. [DOI: 10.1179/1465313314Y.0000000100] [PubMed: 24951095]

Article describing the rationale for and development of the IOFTN.


Markovic, M. (1992). At the crossroads of oral facial genetics. European Journal of Orthodontics, 14, 469–81. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/14.6.469] [PubMed: 1486933]

A fascinating study of twins and triplets with Class II/2 malocclusions.


Proffit, W. R. (1978). Equilibrium theory revisited: factors influencing position of the teeth. Angle Orthodontist, 48, 175–86. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1978)048<0175:ETRFIP>2.0.CO;2] [PubMed: 280125]

Further reading for those wishing to learn more.


Richmond, S., Shaw, W. C., O’Brien, K. D., Buchanan, I. B., Jones, R., Stephens, C. D., et al. (1992). The development of the PAR index (Peer Assessment Rating): reliability and validity. European Journal of Orthodontics, 14, 125–39. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/14.2.125] [PubMed: 1582457]

The PAR index, part 1.


Richmond, S., Shaw, W. C., Roberts, C. T., and Andrews, M. (1992). The PAR index (Peer Assessment Rating): methods to determine the outcome of orthodontic treatment in terms of improvements and standards. European Journal of Orthodontics, 14, 180–7. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/14.3.180] [PubMed: 1628684]

The PAR index, part 2.


Shaw, W. C., O’Brien, K. D., and Richmond, S. (1991). Quality control in orthodontics: indices of treatment need and treatment standards. British Dental Journal, 170, 107–12. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4807429] [PubMed: 2007067]

An interesting paper on the role of indices, with good explanations of the IOTN and the PAR index.


Tang, E. L. K. and Wei, S. H. Y. (1993). Recording and measuring malocclusion: a review of the literature. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 103, 344–51. [DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(93)70015-G] [PubMed: 8480700]

Useful for those researching the subject.

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