Millet, D. T., Mandall, N. A., Mattick, R. C., Hickman, J., and Glenny, A. M. (2017). Adhesives for bonded molar tubes during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008236. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008236.pub3

Only two studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and these both compared bonded molar tubes with molar bands. The studies had a low risk of bias and concluded that bonded molar tubes are associated with a higher failure rate (2–6×) than molar bands. Interestingly, one study found a decreased incidence of decalcification with molar bands.


Millet, D.T., Glenny, A. M., Mattick, R. C., Hickman, J., and Mandall, N. A. (2016). Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD004485. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004485.pub4

Five randomized controlled trials and three controlled clinical trials, which were all of a split-mouth design, were included within the review. The majority of orthodontists use glass ionomer-based adhesives when cementing orthodontic bands due to their ease of use and potential caries-preventing qualities. There were varying failure rates for all cement types included within the review with the more recent studies reporting much lower failure rates; however, there was insufficient evidence to determine the most effective adhesive for attaching orthodontic bands to molar teeth in patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliances and the authors felt that due to inherent bias in most of the study designs the information included within the review should be interpreted with great caution.


Mandall, N. A., Hickman, J., Macfarlane, T. V., Mattick, R. C. R., Millett, D.T., and Worthington, H. V. (2018). Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4, Art. No.: CD002282. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002282.Pub2

Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. The authors were unable to draw any conclusions from this review as there was only weak, unreliable evidence that one adhesive may possibly have more failures associated with it and another adhesive may be more protective against early decay.


Benson, P. E., Parkin, N., Dyer, F., Millett, D. T., Furness, S., and Germain, P. (2013). Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003809. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809.pub3

Three studies which satisfied the new inclusion criteria were analysed in this updated review. This review found some moderate evidence that fluoride varnish applied every 6 weeks at the time of orthodontic review during treatment is effective at reducing the incidence of white spot lesions. However, further high-quality trials are required to determine the best means of preventing demineralized white lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Based on current best practice in other areas of dentistry, for which there is evidence, we recommend that patients with fixed appliances rinse daily with a 0.05% sodium fluoride mouth rinse.


Wang, Y., Llu, C., Jlan, F., McIntyre, G. T., Millett, D. T., Hickman, J., et al. (2018). Initial arch wires used in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 7, Art No.: CD007859. DOI: 10.1002/ 4.

Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in this review. The authors concluded that there was some evidence to indicate that coaxial superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires can produce greater tooth movement over 12 weeks than archwires made of single-stranded superelastic NiTi. They also felt that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether any particular archwire material is superior to any other in terms of alignment rate, time to alignment, pain, and root resorption.


Hu, H., Li, C., Li, F., Chen, J., Sun, J., Zou, S., et al. (2013). Enamel etching for bonding fixed orthodontic braces. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD005516. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005516.pub2

This review included 13 studies. There is currently insufficient high-quality evidence to determine if there is a difference in the bond failure rate between SEPs and conventional etching systems or with regard to decalcification, participant satisfaction, and cost effectiveness.


El-Angbawi, A., McIntyre, G. T., Fleming, P. S., and Bearn, D. R. (2015). Non-surgical adjunctive interventions for accelerating tooth movement in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD010887. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010887.pub2

There is currently very little clinical research regarding the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions to accelerate orthodontic treatment. The claims about the potential positive effects of light vibrational forces are not currently supported by the evidence base.


Fleming, P. S., Fedorowicz, Z., Johal, A., El-Angbawi, A., and Pandis, N. (2015). Surgical adjunctive procedures for accelerating orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD010572. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010572.pub2


The four studies included within the review undertook corticotomies to facilitate tooth movement. It concluded that this technique does potentially accelerate orthodontic tooth movement; however, further high-quality trials are required to confirm any possible benefits.


Andrews, L. F. (1972). The six keys to normal occlusion. American Journal of Orthodontics, 62, 296–309. [DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9416(72)90268-0] [PubMed: 4505873]

The classic paper by the developer of the straight wire appliance.


Archambault, A., Lacoursiere, R., Badawi, H., Mahor, P. W., and Flores-Mir, C. (2010). Torque expression in stainless steel orthodontic brackets. A systematic review. Angle Orthodontist, 80, 201–10. [DOI: 10.2319/080508-352.1] [PubMed: 19852662].


Dehbi, H., Azaroual, M. F., Zaoui, F., Halimi, A., and Benyahia, H. (2017). Therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets: a systematic review. International Orthodontics, 15, 297–311. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ortho.2017.06.009] [PubMed: 28778722]

The authors included 20 randomized controlled trials and concluded that there were no significant differences between self-ligating and conventional bracket systems.


DiBiase, A. T., Woodhouse, N. R., Papageorgiou, S. N., Johnson, N., Slipper, C., Grant, J., et al. (2018). Effects of supplemental vibrational force on space closure, treatment duration, and occlusal outcome: a multicentre randomised clinical trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 153, 469–80. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.10.021] [PubMed: 29602338]

The results indicate that the application of a supplemental vibrational force did not affect space closure, treatment duration, total number of visits, or final occlusal outcome.


Gange, P. (2015). The evolution of bonding in orthodontics. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 147, S56–63. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.01.011] [PubMed: 25836345]


Höchli, D., Hersberger-Zurfluh, M., Papageorgiou, S. N., and Eliades, T. (2017). Interventions for orthodontically induced white spot lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Orthodontics, 39, 122–33. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjw065] [PubMed: 27907894]


Hoffman, S., Papadopoulos, N., Visel, D., Visel, T., Jost-Brinkmann, P. G., and Präger, T. M. (2017). Influence of piezotomy and osteoperforation of the alveolar process on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, 78, 301–11. [DOI: 10.1007/s00056-017-0085-1] [PubMed: 28321457]


Kapila, S. and Sachdeva, R. (1989). Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 96, 100–9. [DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(89)90251-5] [PubMed: 2667330].

An excellent, and readable, account of archwire materials.


Kouskoura, T., Katsaros, C., and von Gunten, S. (2017). The potential use of pharmacological agents to modulate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 67. [DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00067] [PubMed: 28228735]

This paper includes a detailed description of the biology of tooth movement as well as the current areas of investigation for pharmacologically influencing orthodontic tooth movement.


Kusy, R. P. (1997). A review of contemporary archwires: their properties and characteristics. Angle Orthodontist, 67, 197–207. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1997)067<0197:AROCAT>2.3.CO;2] PubMed: 9188964].


McLaughlin, R. P., Bennett, J., and Trevisi, H. J. (2001). Systemised Orthodontic Treatment Mechanics. Edinburgh: Mosby.

A clearly written and beautifully illustrated book, which should be read by anyone using fixed appliances.


Millett, D. T. and Gordon, P. H. (1994). A 5-year clinical review of bond failure with a no-mix adhesive (Right-on). European Journal of Orthodontics, 16, 203–11. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/16.3.203] [PubMed: 8062860]


O’Higgins, E. A., Kirschen, R. H., and Lee, R. T. (1999). The influence of maxillary incisor inclination on arch length. British Journal of Orthodontics, 26, 97–102. [DOI: 10.1093/ortho/26.2.97] [PubMed: 10420243]

A fascinating article—a ‘must read’ for those practitioners using fixed appliances.


Rogers, S., Chadwick, B., and Treasure, E. (2010). Fluoride-containing orthodontic adhesives and decalcification in patients with fixed appliances: a systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 138, 390e. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.05.002] [PubMed: 20889037]


Russell, J. (2005). Aesthetic orthodontic brackets. Journal of Orthodontics, 32, 146–63. [DOI: 10.1179/146531205225021024] [PubMed: 15994990]

An easy-to-read résumé of currently available aesthetic brackets and their limitations.


Wright, N., Modarai, F., and Cobourne, M. (2011). Do you do Damon? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system? Journal of Orthodontics, 38, 222–30. [DOI: 10.1179/14653121141479] [PubMed: 21875995].

As the title suggests!


Woodhouse, N. R., DiBiase, A. T., Johnson, N., Slipper, C., Grant, J., Alsaleh, M., et al. (2015). Supplemental vibrational force during orthodontic alignment: a randomized trial. Journal of Dental Research, 94, 682–9. [DOI: 10.1177/0022034515576195] [PubMed: 25758457]

The results indicate that the application of a supplemental vibrational force did not significantly increase the rate of tooth alignment or reduce the rate of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption to the central incisors during the alignment phase of fixed appliance therapy.


Yang X., He, Y., Chen, T., Zhao, M., Yan, Y., Wang, H, et al. (2017). Differences between active and passive self-ligating brackets for orthodontic treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized clinical trials. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, 78, 121–8. [DOI: 10.1007/s00056-016-0059-8] [PubMed: 28224175]


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