Jambi, S., Walsh, T., Sandler, J., Benson, P. E., Skeggs, R. M., and O’Brien, K. D. (2014). Reinforcement of anchorage during orthodontic brace treatment with implants or other surgical methods. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 8, Art. No.: CD005098. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005098.pub3 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005098.pub3/full

This review included 15 studies and concluded there was strong evidence that surgical anchorage, especially with the use of mini-screw implants, was a more effective method of controlling anchorage than traditional approaches.

 

Jambi, S., Thiruvenkatachari, B., O’Brien, K. D., and Walsh, T. (2013). Orthodontic treatment for distalising upper first molars in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10, Art. No.: CD008375. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008375.pub2 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008375.pub2/full

This review included ten studies and concluded that the use of intra-oral appliances to distalize maxillary molars was more effective than extra-oral appliances (headgear). However, the use of intraoral appliances was counteracted by a loss of anterior anchorage which did not occur when headgear was used.

 

Antoszewska-Smith, J. I., Sarul, M., Łyczek, J., Konopka, T., and Kawala, B. (2017). Effectiveness of orthodontic miniscrew implants in anchorage reinforcement during en-masse retraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 151, 440–55. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.08.029] [PubMed: 28257728]

 

Bowden, D. E. J. (1978). Theoretical considerations of headgear therapy; a literature review. 1. Mechanical principles. British Journal of Orthodontics, 5, 145–52. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.5.3.145] [PubMed: 385036].

Bowden, D. E. J. (1978). Theoretical considerations of headgear therapy: a literature review. 2. Clinical response and usage. British Journal of Orthodontics, 5, 173–81. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.5.4.173] [PubMed: 385038]

These two papers provide an authoritative review of the principles of headgear.

 

Cousley, R. (2005). Critical aspects in the use of orthodontics palatal implants. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, 127, 723–9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2004.01.027] [PubMed: 15953898]

 

Crismani, A. G., Berti, M. H., Celar, A. G., Bantleton, H. P., and Burstone, C. J. (2010). Mini-screws in orthodontic treatment: review and analysis of published clinical trials. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 137, 108–13. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2008.01.027] [PubMed: 20122438]

This review indicated that mini-screws (TADs) can be used to reinforce anchorage with a failure rate of less than one in five.

 

Firouz, M., Zernik, J., and Nanda, R. (1992). Dental and orthopaedic effects of high-pull headgear in treatment of Class II, division 1 malocclusion. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 102, 197–205.

 

Kerschen, R. H., O’Higgins, E. A., and Lee, R. T. (2000). The Royal London Space Planning: an integration of space analysis and treatment planning: Part I: Assessing the space required to meet treatment objectives. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118, 448–55.

 

Kerschen, R. H., O’Higgins, E. A., and Lee, R. T. (2000). The Royal London Space Planning: an integration of space analysis and treatment planning: Part II: The effect of other treatment procedures on space. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118, 456–61.

 

Papadopoulos, M. A., Papageorgiou, S. N., and Zogakis, I. P. (2011). Clinical effectiveness of orthodontics miniscrew implants: a meta-analysis. Journal of Dental Research, 90, 969–76.

 

Postlethwaite, K. (1989). The range and effectiveness of safety products. European Journal of Orthodontics, 11, 228–34.

 

Prahbu, J. and Cousley, R. R. J. (2006). Current products and practice: bone anchorage devices in orthodontics. Journal of Orthodontics, 33, 288–307.

This paper is an overview of available bone anchorage devices.

 

Proffit, W. R., Fields, H. R., and Sarver, D. M. (2012). Contemporary Orthodontics (5th edn). St Louis, MO: Mosby.

 

Reynders, R., Ronchi, L., and Bipat, S. (2009). Mini-implants in orthodontics: a systematic review of the literature. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, 135, 564.e1–19.

 

Sandler, J., Benson, P. E., Doyle, P., Majumder, A., O’Dwyer, J., Speight, P., et al. (2008). Palatal implants are a good alternative to headgear: a randomised trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 133, 51–7.

Randomised clinical trial to compare headgear wear with mid-palatal implants. Using clinical and radiographic interpretation, the mid-palatal implant was found to be very effective.

 

Stivaros, N., Lowe, C., Dandy, N., Doherty, B., and Mandall, N. A. (2010). A randomized clinical trial to compare the Goshgarian and Nance palatal arch. European Journal of Orthodontic, 32, 171–6.

 

Samuels, R. H. (1996). A review of orthodontic face-bow injuries and safety equipment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 110, 269–72.

 

Samuels, R. H. (1997). A new locking face-bow. Journal of Clinical Orthdontics, 31, 24–7.

 

Upadhyay, M., Yadav, S., Nagaraj, K., and Patil, S. (2008). Treatment effects of mini-implants for en-masse retraction of anterior teeth in bialveolar dental protrusion patients: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Orthodontics Dentofacial Orthopaedics, 134, 18–29.

 

Upadhyay, M., Yadav, S., Nagaraj, K., Uribe, F., and Nanda, R. (2012). Mini-implants vs fixed functional appliances for treatment of young adult Class II female patients. The Angle Orthodontist, 82, 294–303.

 

Zablocki, H. L., McNamara, J. A. Jr., Franchi, L., and Baccetti, T. (2008). Effect of the transpalatal arch during extraction treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 133, 852–60.