Parkin, N., Benson, P. E., Thind, B., Shah, A., Khalil, I., and Ghafoor, S. (2017). Open versus closed surgical exposure of canine teeth that are displaced in the roof of the mouth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 8, Art. No.: CD006966. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006966.pub3 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006966.pub3/full
This review concluded that currently, there is no evidence to support one surgical technique over the other in terms of dental health, aesthetics, economics, and patient factors.
Armstrong, C., Johnstone, C., Burden, D., and Stevenson, M. (2003). Localising ectopic maxillary canines – horizontal or vertical parallax. European Journal of Orthodontics, 25, 585–9. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/25.6.585] [PubMed: 14700264].
Brough, E., Donaldson, A. N., and Naini, F. B. (2010). Canine substitution for missing maxillary lateral incisors: the influence of canine morphology, size, and shade on perceptions of smile attractiveness. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 138, 705–7. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.08.004] [PubMed: 21130320].
An interesting question and answer exchange between the editor of the journal and the authors.
A well-illustrated paper that describes the practical steps in aligning a palatal canine following exposure.
Gorlin, R. J., Cohen, M. M., and Levin, L. S. (1990). Syndromes of the Head and Neck (3rd edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
This excellent reference book includes, among a wealth of other information, data on the development and incidence of canine anomalies.
Hussain, J., Burden, D., and McSherry, P. (2016). Management of the Palatally Ectopic Maxillary Canine. London: Faculty of Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (https://www.rcseng.ac.uk/dental-faculties/fds/publications-guidelines/clinical-guidelines/).
This recently updated review evaluates the evidence relating to the management of palatally displaced canines.
Jacobs, S. G. (1999). Localisation of the unerupted maxillary canine: how to and when to. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 115, 314–22. [DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(99)70335-5] [PubMed: 10066981].
An interesting discussion of different radiographic approaches to localizing unerupted maxillary canines.
Kokich, G. and Mathews, D. P. (2014). Orthodontic and Surgical Management of Impacted Teeth. Chicago, IL: Quintessence.
A beautifully illustrated book which covers the whole gamut of possible impactions
McSherry, P. F. and Richardson, A. (1999). Ectopic eruption of the maxillary canine quantified in three dimensions on cephalometric radiographs between the ages of 5 and 15 years. European Journal of Orthodontics, 21, 41–8. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/21.1.41] [PubMed: 10191576]
This interesting study found that differences in the eruption pattern of palatally ectopic canines were evident from as early as 5 years of age.
Naoumova, J., Kurol, R., and Kjellberg, H. (2015). Extraction of the deciduous canine as an interceptive treatment in children with palatally displaced canines – part I: shall we extract the canine or not? European Journal of Orthodontics, 37, 209–18. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cju040] [PubMed: 25246604]
Naoumova, J., Kurol, R., and Kjellberg, H. (2015). Extraction of the deciduous canine as an interceptive treatment in children with palatally displaced canines – part II possible predictors of success and cut-off points for a spontaneous eruption. European Journal of Orthodontics, 37, 219–29. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cju102] [PubMed: 25700993]
The results of this well-designed randomized controlled trial appear to support the extraction of the deciduous canine to improve the position of palatally impacted permanent canines.
Parkin, N. and Benson, P. (2011). Current ideas on the management of palatally displaced canines. Faculty Dental Journal, 2, 24–9. [DOI: 10.1308/204268510X12888692969905]
An excellent article by the authors of the two Cochrane reviews putting their findings into context.