Lentini-Oliveira, D. A., Carvalho, F. R., Rodrigues, C. G., Ye, Q., Prado, L. B., Prado, G. F., et al. (2014). Orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment for anterior open bite in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 9, Art. No.: CD005515. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005515.pub3 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005515.pub3/full

Three randomized controlled trials were included in this review; however, due to the quality of the evidence, the authors concluded that recommendations for clinical practice could not be made.


Borrie, F. R. P., Bearn, D. R., Innes, N. P., and Iheozor-Ejiofor, Z. (2015). Interventions for the cessation of non-nutritive sucking habits in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, Art. No.: CD008694. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008694.pub2 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008694.pub2/full

Six trials which looked at the effectiveness of methods to stop digit-sucking habits were included in this review. The authors concluded that there was low-quality evidence that orthodontic appliances (palatal arch and palatal crib) and psychological interventions (including positive and negative reinforcement) are effective at improving sucking cessation in children. There was some evidence that the palatal crib was effective at improving the AOB reduction. The authors felt that further research was required.


Baek, M. -S., Choi, Y. -J., Yu, H. -S., Lee, K. -L., Kwak, J., and Park, Y. C. (2010). Long-term stability of anterior open-bite treatment by intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 138, 396.e1–396.e9 (Editorial 138, 396–8). [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.05.006] [PubMed: 20889043]

A short online article with an interesting Q&A section with the lead author and the journal’s editor.


Chate, R. A. C. (1994). The burden of proof: a critical review of orthodontic claims made by some general practitioners. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 106, 96–105. [DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(94)70026-5] [PubMed: 8017355].

An excellent discussion of the evidence on the postulated and actual effects of mouth breathing upon the dentition, plus much other information. Highly recommended.


Dung, D. J. and Smith, R. J. (1988). Cephalometric and clinical diagnoses of open bite tendency. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 94, 484–90. [DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(88)90006-6] [PubMed: 3195512]

The authors also look at predictors of successful treatment.


Frazier-Bowers, S. A., Koehler, K. E., Ackerman, J. L., and Proffit, W. R. (2007). Primary failure of eruption: further chacterization of a rare eruption disorder. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 131, 578.e1–11. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.09.038] [PubMed: 17482073]

An update with clinical and radiographic images from the authors who first described the condition.


Greenlee, G. M., Huang, G. J. Chen, S. S. -H., Chen, J., Koepsell, T., and Hujoel, P. (2010). Stability of treatment for anterior open-bite malocclusion: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 139, 154–9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.10.019] [PubMed: 21300243].

Unfortunately, the authors were only able to find case series types of studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria, therefore their findings must be viewed with caution.


Kim, Y. H. (1987). Anterior open bite and its treatment with multi-loop edgewise archwire. Angle Orthodontist, 57, 290–321. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1987)057<0290:AOAITW>2.0.CO;2] [PubMed: 3479033].


Lin, L. -H., Huang, G. -W., and Chen, C. -S. (2013). Etiology and treatment modalities of anterior open bite malocclusion. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 5, 1–4. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jecm.2013.01.004]

A good résumé of AOB malocclusions.


Linder-Aronson, S. (1970). Adenoids: their effect on mode of breathing and nasal airflow and their relationship to characteristics of the facial skeleton and dentition. Acta Otolaryngologica (Supplement), 265, 1–132. [PubMed: 5272140]


Lopez-Gavito, G., Wallen, T. R., Little, R. M., and Joondeph, D. R. (1985). Anterior open-bite malocclusion: a longitudinal 10-year postretention evaluation of orthodontically treated patients. American Journal of Orthodontics, 87, 175–86. [DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(85)90038-7] [PubMed: 3856391]


Mizrahi, E. (1978). A review of anterior open bite. British Journal of Orthodontics, 5, 21–7.

A worthy review. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.5.1.21] [PubMed: 284793].


Orton, H. S. (1990). Functional Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment. London: Quintessence Books.

A beautifully illustrated and informative book. The maxillary and buccal intrusion splints are described.


Tieu, L. D., Walker, S. L., Major, M. P., and Flores-Mir, C. (2013). Management of ankylosed primary molars with permanent successors – a systematic review. Journal of the American Dental Association, 114, 602–11. [DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2013.0171]

A good review of the literature.


Vaden, J. L. (1998). Non-surgical treatment of the patient with vertical discrepancy. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 113, 567–82. [DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(98)70268-9] [PubMed: 9598615]

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