Millett, D. T., Cunningham, S. J., O’Brien, K. D., Benson, P. E., and de Oliveira, C. M. (2018). Orthodontic treatment for deep bite and retroclined upper front teeth in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, Art No.: CD005972. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005972.pub4 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005972.pub4/full
The authors concluded it was not possible to provide any evidence-based guidance for the management of this malocclusion in children.
Baccetti, T., Franchi, L., and McNamara, J. (2011). Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 140, 202–9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.04.015] [PubMed: 21803258]
An interesting paper reporting changes in overbite during growth.
A useful paper for the more experienced orthodontist using fixed appliances.
Dyer, F. M., McKeown, H. F., and Sandler, P. J. (2001). The modified twin block appliance in the treatment of Class II division 2 malocclusions. Journal of Orthodontics, 28, 271–80. [DOI: 10.1093/ortho/28.4.271] [PubMed: 11709592]
Describes the management of two Class II division 2 cases treated with functional and fixed appliances with excellent illustrations.
The original paper describing edge–centroid and its relationship to overbite.
A classic article.
A historically important paper investigating the incisor inclination at stages of tooth development.
Kim, T. W. and Little, R. M. (1999). Post retention assessment of deep overbite correction in Class II division 2 malocclusion. Angle Orthodontist, 69, 175–86. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(1999)069<0175:PAODOC>2.3.CO;2] [PubMed: 10227559]
Lapatki, B. G., Mager, A. S., Sculte-Moenting J., and Jonas, I. E. (2002). The importance of the level of the lip line and resting lip pressure in Class II, Division 2 malocclusion. Journal of Dental Research, 85, 323–8. [DOI: 10.1177/154405910208100507] [PubMed: 12097445]
Evidence to suggest that high pressure from a high lip line is an important aetiological factor in Class II division 2 malocclusion.
Melsen, B. and Allais, D. (2005). Factors of importance for the development of dehiscence during labial movement of mandibular incisors: a retrospective study of adult orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 127, 552–61. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.12.026] [PubMed: 15877035]
Although this is a retrospective study, it does have a sample size of 150 adults. The authors concluded that thin gingivae pre-treatment, presence of plaque, and inflammation were useful predictors of gingival recession.
Millett, D. T., Cunningham, S., O’Brien, D., Benson, P., and de Oliveira, C. M. (2012). Treatment and stability of Class II division 2 malocclusion in children and adolescents: a systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 142, 159–69. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.03.022] [PubMed: 22858324]
The authors provide guidelines for treatment of Class II division 2 malocclusion but emphasize the lack of good evidence currently available.
Mills, J. R. E. (1973). The problem of overbite in Class II division 2 malocclusion. British Journal of Orthodontics, 1, 34-48 [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.1.1.34]
A classic paper describing the aetiology of malocclusion and aims of treatment.
Ng, J., Major, P. W., Heo, G., and Flores-Mir, C. (2005). True incisor intrusion attained during orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 128, 212–19. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2004.04.025] [PubMed: 16102407]
The authors found limited true incisor intrusion in non-growing patients.
This paper contains a carefully constructed argument for management of Class II division 2 malocclusion by proclination of the lower labial segment rather than extractions, in order to avoid detrimental effects upon the profile.