Benson, P. E., Parkin, N., Dyer, F., Millett, D.T., Furness, S., and Germain, P. (2013). Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003809. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809.pub3.

The authors report that (1) fluoride varnish applied every 6 weeks provided moderate-quality evidence of around 70% reduction in demineralized white lesions, and (2) no difference was found between different formulations of fluoride toothpaste and mouth rinse on white spot index, visible plaque index, and gingival bleeding index.


American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 1992, 101(1).

This is a special issue dedicated to the results of several studies set up by the American Association of Orthodontists to investigate the link between orthodontic treatment and the temporomandibular joint.


Davies, S. J., Gray, R. M. J., Sandler, P. J., and O’Brien, K. D. (2001). Orthodontics and occlusion. British Dental Journal, 191, 539–49. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4801229] [PubMed: 11767855]

This concise article is part of a series of articles on occlusion. It contains an example of an articulatory examination.


DiBiase, A. T. and Sandler, P. J. (2001). Malocclusion, orthodontics and bullying. Dent Update, 28, 464–6. [DOI: 10.12968/denu.2001.28.9.464] [PubMed: 11806190]

An interesting discussion around bullying and the ‘victim type’.


Egermark, I., Magnusson, T., and Carlsson, G. E. (2003). A 20-year follow-up of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in subjects with and without orthodontic treatment in childhood. Angle Orthodontist, 73, 109–15. [DOI: 10.1043/0003-3219(2003)73<109:AYFOSA>2.0.CO] [PubMed: 12725365].

A long-term cohort study, which found no statistically significant difference in TMD signs and symptoms between subjects with or without previous experience of orthodontic treatment.


Guzman-Armstrong, S., Chalmers, J., Warren, J. J. (2011). Readers’ forum: White spot lesions: prevention and treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 138, 690–6. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.07.007] [PubMed: 21171493]

An interesting and informative read on decalcification during orthodontic treatment.


Helm, S. and Petersen, P. E. (1989). Causal relation between malocclusion and caries. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 47, 217–21. [DOI: 10.3109/00016358909007704] [PubMed: 2782059]

A historic paper that demonstrates no link between malocclusion and caries.


Joss-Vassalli, I., Grebenstein, C., Topouzelis, N., Sculean, A., and Katsaros, C. (2010). Orthodontic therapy and gingival recession: a systematic review. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, 13, 127–41. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2010.01491.x] [PubMed: 20618715]

Kenealy, P. M., Kingdon, A., Richmond, S., and Shaw, W. C. (2007). The Cardiff dental study: a 20-year critical evaluation of the psychological health gain from orthodontic treatment. British Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 17–49. [DOI: 10.1348/135910706X96896] [PubMed: 17288664]

An interesting paper highlighting the complexities of self-esteem.


Luther, F. (2007). TMD and occlusion part I. Damned if we do? Occlusion the interface of dentistry and orthodontics. British Dental Journal, 202, E2.

Luther, F. (2007). TMD and occlusion part II. Damned if we don’t? Functional occlusal problems: TMD epidemiology in a wider context. British Dental Journal, 202, E3.

These two articles are well worth reading.


Maaitah, E. F., Adeyami, A. A., Higham, S. M., Pender, N., and Harrison, J. E. (2011). Factors affecting demineralization during orthodontic treatment: a post-hoc analysis of RCT recruits. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 139, 181–91. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.08.028] [PubMed: 21300246]

A useful study that concludes that pre-treatment age, oral hygiene, and status of the first permanent molars can be used as a guide to the likelihood of decalcification occurring during treatment.


Mizrahi, E. (2010). Risk management in clinical practice. Part 7. Dento-legal aspects of orthodontic practice. British Dental Journal, 209, 381–90. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2010.926] [PubMed: 20966997].


Murray, A. M. (1989). Discontinuation of orthodontic treatment: a study of the contributing factors. British Journal of Orthodontics, 16, 1–7. [DOI: 10.1179/bjo.16.1.1] [PubMed: 2647133].


Nguyen, Q. V., Bezemer, P. D., Habets, L., and Prahl-Andersen, B. (1999). A systematic review of the relationship between overjet size and traumatic dental injuries. European Journal of Orthodontics, 21, 503–15. [DOI: 10.1093/ejo/21.5.503] [PubMed: 10565091].

Petti, S. (2015). Over two hundred million injuries to anterior teeth attributable to large overjet: a meta-analysis. Dental Traumatology, 31, 1–8. [DOI: 10.1111/edt.12126] [PubMed: 25263806]

Two systematic reviews that demonstrate the relationship between increased overjet and dental trauma.


Roberts-Harry, D. and Sandy, J. (2003). Orthodontics. Part 1: who needs orthodontics? British Dental Journal, 195, 433. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4810592] [PubMed: 14576790]

A summary of the potential benefits of orthodontic treatment.


Seehra, J., Newton, J. T., and Dibiase A. T. (2011). Bullying in schoolchildren – its relationship to dental appearance and psychosocial implications: an update for GDPs. British Dental Journal, 210, 411–15. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.339] [PubMed: 21566605]

A useful summary of bullying and its relationship to malocclusion.


Steele, J., White, D., Rolland, S., and Fuller, E. (2015). Children’s Dental Health Survey 2013. Report 4: The burden of dental disease in children: England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Leeds: Health and Social Care Information Centre.

Tsakos, G., Hill, K., Chadwick B., and Anderson, T. (2015). Children’s Dental Health Survey 2013. Report 1: Attitudes, behaviours and Children’s Dental Health: England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Leeds: Health and Social Care Information Centre.

The reports from the 2013 Child Dental Health Survey, highlighting orthodontic treatment need.


Travess, H., Roberts-Harry, D., and Sandy, J. (2004). Orthodontics. Part 6: Risks in orthodontic treatment. British Dental Journal, 196, 71–7. [DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4810891] [PubMed: 14739957]

A follow-up to the previous article by the same authors to outline the risks of orthodontic treatment, illustrated with cases.


Weltman, B., Vig, K. W., Fields, H. W., Shanker, S., and Kaizar, E. E. (2010). Root resorption associated with orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 137, 462–76. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.06.021] [PubMed: 20362905]


Wheeler, T. T., McGorray, S. P., Yurkiewicz, L., Keeling, S. D., and King, G. J. (1994). Orthodontic treatment demand and need in third and fourth grade schoolchildren. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 106, 22–33. [DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(94)70017-6] [PubMed: 8017346]

Contains a good discussion on the need and demand for treatment.

Zhang, M., McGrath, C., and Hägg, U. (2006). The impact of malocclusion and its treatment on quality of life: a literature review. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 16, 381–7. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00768.x] [PubMed: 17014535]

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