__________ was a French immigrant who wrote Letters from an American Farmer (1782) celebrating the American farmer.

__________ was the first vice president and second president of the United States.

The __________ prompted a largely Federalist Congress to suspend commercial ties to France, empower American ships to seize armed French vessels, and expand the nation's military.

__________ was the primary author of the Bill of Rights; leader (with Jefferson) of Democratic-Republican Party.

__________ was the third president of the United States, first Secretary of State, leader (with Madison) of the Democratic-Republican Party, and author of Notes on the State of Virginia (1785).