__________ was the most powerful and controversial of all the Constitution's amendments, it guaranteed citizenship to all males born in the United States, regardless of color and based representation in Congress on a state's voting population. This punished southern states by reducing their representation if they did not allow blacks to vote.

__________ was a newspaperman and 1872 Democratic presidential candidate. During his life, he was a radical reformer and a vegetarian and supported homesteading, agrarian reform, and workers' rights.

__________ were laws enacted after the Civil War in former Confederate states that severely restricted the civil rights of freed people. They were intended to recreate the conditions of slavery, if not the legal fact.

__________ succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Abraham Lincoln. Whereas many Republicans preferred to punish the former Confederate states after the war, he believed in small government and a speedy readmission of the southern states.

__________ was the Union General in charge of the Freedman's Bureau after the Civil War who directed his agents to rent the land to the freed people in 40-acre plots that they could eventually purchase.

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