Public Policy and The Bureaucracy

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1. Describe the various stages of the public-policy cycle.

*Answer: Describe the following stages: agenda setting, policy formulation, decision-making, policy implementation, policy evaluation, and policy change. Each response should have examples.

2. Describe how the public policy cycle is affected by the election cycle.

*Answer: Describe the start-up phase, the action phase, the clean-up phase, and the red zone, and how each phase affects the functioning of thepublicpolicy cycle.

3. How do patronage and merit appointments differ?

*Answer: Compare and contrast patronage and merit by defining the terms (partisan vs. non-partisan appointments); discuss the patronage system in the first party system, quid pro quo government contracts, executive trust, etc.; and discuss the merit principle by evaluating standards, discrimination, new government agenda, the Public Service Commission, and transparency.

4. How do left wing political parties approach budgeting?

*Answer: Explain how these parties handle budgeting during a surplus and a deficit; discuss how left-wing parties increase spending, borrowing, and taxes; and discuss how they delay debt payments, reduce spending, and maintain programs and services.

5. What is the difference between a budget deficit and public debt?

*Answer: Budget deficit occurs when spending exceeds revenue. The debt is the accumulated amount borrowed by a government, and must be paid back. The debt can be a result of the government borrowing to cover previous budget deficits.  Public debts can accumulate if the government continues to borrow and runs numerous deficits.

6. What are the major government revenues in Canada? Expenses? How do these differ across the federal and provincial/territorial governments?

*Answer: Discuss the differences in federal revenues and provincial revenues, including personal income tax and sales taxes, and how perspectives on taxes vary across provinces and territories. Discuss various federal and provincial/territorial expenditures, including responsibilities such as the health and education sector.

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