Chapter 19: International environmental law
Key points for reflection:
- Historically defined: from 1972 Stockholm, 1992 Rio de Janeiro to 2015 Paris?
- Sources of international environmental law and the place of ‘soft law’ and other innovative compliance regimes
- Substantive international environmental law has developed in response to specific issues (e.g. the ozone layer or the protection of endangered species)
- The role of the United Nations Environment Programme and its engagement with other aspects of the UN’s work
- Chief principle: concept of sustainable development, now accepted as custom by the ICJ in Gabcikovo-Nagymaros (1997)
- Contested principles: obligations of prevention, duties of due diligence, the principle of precaution