Chapter 13: Enforcement short of force

A video tutorial from author Gleider Hernández introducing the topics in chapter 13 of International Law

Key points for reflection:

  • Sovereign equality requires the consent of States for obligations to be accepted
  • Decentralised enforcement has often meant that States take matters into their own hands
  • There has been a move throughout history from forcible to strictly non-forcible measures
  • Reprisals: originally permissible punitive responses, now effectively obsolete
  • Acts of retorsion: perfectly lawful but nevertheless unfriendly responses
  • Countermeasures: non-forcible responses that allow for the non-performance of certain legal obligations under limited circumstances
  • Sanctions: a term usually reserved for decisions of international organisations