The idea of _____ stresses that executed individuals will never commit another crime.

The Quakers preferred _____ to flogging.

Abolition of parole is a change instituted in the _____ era.

_____ Prison became known for its use of the congregate-and-silent system.

_____ originated the marks-of-commendation system.

_____ began the ticket-of-leave system.

____ helped set guidelines for what constitutes cruel and unusual punishment in prison and the circumstances under which prison officials are liable.

Some critics say ______ is a violation of the "cruel and unusual punishments" clause of the Eighth Amendment.

_____ ran the Elmira Reformatory, which used volunteers to keep up with released inmates.

The _______ Penitentiary was characterized by the separate-and-silent system.