Chapter 12 reviews alternatives to prison for criminal offenders; these include probation (instead of prison) and parole (after prison).
Topic: Community Corrections and Diversion
- Society cannot afford to imprison everyone who violates the law. Community corrections are a way to punish offenders without incarcerating them.
- Prisons only achieve the goals of incapacitation, retribution, and rehabilitation in a limited manner.
- The four interrelated community corrections strategies are: diversion programs, probation, parole, and intermediate sanctions.
- Offenders may be sent to alternative programs at several junctures in the criminal justice system.
- Diversion programs are popular for first-time offenders who have committed minor offenses.
- Probation is a widely used sentencing alternative in which offenders are not incarcerated if they promise good behavior and agree to restrictions and/or requirements set by a judge.
- There are more probationers than inmates or parolees, and state probationers outnumber federal probationers.
- Three activities define the occupation of the probation officer: investigation, supervision, and service.
- The probation officer is responsible for writing the pre-sentence investigation
- The pre-sentence investigation report contains information about two important aspects of the case: the legal history of the incident and the offender's social history.
- Parole is for offenders who are leaving prison after serving a partial sentence.
- Parole grew from the philosophy that the penal system should help the offender return to society.
- Parolees face much of the same restrictions and requirements as probationers.
- The decision to grant parole is based on three principles: retribution, rehabilitation, and prison space.
- Parole boards make their decisions based on time served, prison adjustment, pre-parole plan, offender interview, and victim-impact statements.
- Offenders returning to society face three primary obstacles: prisonization, weakened social ties, and stigmatization.
Topic: Intermediate sanctions
- Intermediate sanctions are sentencing alternatives that exist between probation and incarceration. Notable examples are intensive-supervision probation (ISP), drug testing, house arrest/electronic monitoring, and fines.
- Shock probation is a program in which the offender receives a false sentence in jail or prison, but is released on probation after 30 to 90 days of incarceration.