Chapter 10 explores the history, purpose, and means of the control of offenders.


Topic: Prisons: Development, Reforms, and Penal Philosophies

  • Early American institutions were locally controlled and imprisoned different types of offenders together.
  • Two reform-type prison systems emerged during the first half of the 19th century: the Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System, both emphasizing silence and penitence.
  • European countries developed the Irish System, which was designed not just to punish, but also to increase the inmate's success in returning to free society. The three most well-known examples were developed by Alexander Maconochie, Sir Walter Crofton, and Zebulon Brockway.
  • Alexander Maconochie popularized the indeterminate sentence.
  • Sir Walter Crofton instituted the early-release ticket-of-leave system.
  • In the early 20th century, work was considered useful for keeping inmates occupied, rehabilitating inmates, and offsetting the cost of incarceration.
  • S. prisons acknowledged rehabilitation as a primary goal around 1930.
  • Reasons for rehabilitation were new developments in how science treated illness and the 1931 Wickersham Commission report.
  • In the 1960s, inmates became politically active in demanding changes in their surroundings, and the courts began to specify inmates' rights.
  • The retributive era, which began around 1970 and continues to the present, features replacing indeterminate sentencing with determinate sentencing, making treatment voluntary, and the abolition of parole.


Topic: Capital Punishment

  • The most extreme and controversial form of control is capital punishment.
  • Historically, punishment by death was common, and a number of ways were devised to kill the condemned.
  • In the 20th century, death sentences began to be carried out with few witnesses and in the most painless way believed possible.
  • Arguments for capital punishment include general and specific deterrence and retribution.
  • Arguments against capital punishment include religious and spiritual concerns; beliefs that it does not deter; race, gender, and class issues about who is selected for death; and fear of executing the innocent.