PRISONS IN THE UNITED STATES

Control in the Colonies and Early United States: 1770–1860

The Pennsylvania System

The Auburn System

Age of Reform: 1860–1900

Alexander Maconochie

Sir Walter Crofton

Zebulon Brockway

A New Emphasis on Prison Labor: 1900–1930

Age of Rehabilitation: 1930–1970

Retributive Era: 1970s to the Present

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

Capital Punishment in Historical Perspective

The Search for Humane Execution

Electrocution

Gas

Lethal Injection

Arguments Supporting Capital Punishment

Arguments against Capital Punishment

Is the Death Penalty Dead?

SUMMARY