May be performed before or after the measurement of the dependent variable.

This procedure is intended to reduce participants’ preoccupation with the true purpose of the experiment.

At this stage, participants may be questioned directly about their experience during the experiment.

May be strengthened through replication.

A major strength of experiments.

An experiment that manipulates more than one independent variable.

A true experiment that is conducted in a natural setting.

A threat to internal validity that occurs when participants are not randomly assigned to experimental conditions.

Designed to reduce the impact of reactive measurement due to the experimenter.

Ensures that pre-experimental differences between experimental conditions are “neutralized” or distributed evenly.