A variable that the researcher tries to explain or predict.

Created when an antecedent variable is a common cause of two variables.

One object of research design is to identify and control as many of these variables as possible.

Tests of ________ indicate whether an association between variables is likely to have occurred by chance.

Asks about the meaning and cultural significance of people’s actions.

Measures the strength of the association between two quantitative variables.

May result from drawing conclusions about individuals based on aggregate data.

Specifying the ________ in a relationship enhances theoretical understanding.

Examples in sociology are individual people, families, schools, nations, and artifacts such as newspapers and books.

Asks about the relationship between two or more variables.

In Broh’s study of sports participation and grades, a student’s race and sex are examples of this type of variable.

It is hypothesized that women drink less than men. Gender is the ________ variable.