In field research, this may be safeguarded by using fictitious names for individuals, groups, and locations.

An essential procedure in studies involving deception that serves methodological and educational purposes.

Federal regulations for protecting research participants.

The benefits and burdens of research should be fairly distributed.

Protects participants’ freedom of choice to participate in research.

The final arbiter of the ethics of proposed studies at virtually all colleges and universities in the U.S.

The Belmont principle that underlies the ethical requirement of informed consent.

May have occurred in Regnerus’s study of same-sex parenting because it was funded by conservative foundations.

Directs researchers to consider participants’ welfare by maximizing the benefits and minimizing the possible harms of research.

Secures research participants’ right to privacy.

Poses questions concerning how to conduct research in moral and responsible ways.