Different kinds of data are collected, either concurrently or sequentially, from the same individuals or groups.

Combining different methods of data collection or analysis in the same study.

Implemented to address questions that emerge in the process of data collection with additional data collection.

Two approaches are applied independently and their findings are compared.

Use of dissimilar measures or methods to address the same research question, usually to confirm or verify findings.

Incorporated in both the study of the effect of abuse on cohabitation and the New York audit study of discrimination.

Different approaches are connected or merged during the process of data collection and analysis.