Discovering Human Sexuality 4e Chapter 9 Outline

Birth Control Has a Long History

Feminists led the campaign to legalize contraception
Box 9.1 Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement
Contraception has not yet solved the problem of unintended pregnancy
Different users have different contraceptive needs

Physical Methods Block Sperm Transport

Male condoms are reliable when properly used
Female condoms are relatively intrusive
Box 9.2 Male Contraceptives of the Future?
Diaphragms and cervical caps are inconvenient but have few side effects
Spermicides are not very reliable when used alone

Hormone-Based Methods Are Easy to Use

Combination pills offer health benefits
Continuous use of combination pills eliminates menstrual periods
Progestin-only pills have fewer side effects

Hormones Can Be Administered by Non-Oral Routes

Transdermal patches last a week
Vaginal rings last three weeks
Depo-Provera lasts three months
Implants are extremely reliable
Intrauterine devices require little attention

The Availability of Hormonal Contraceptives May Be Limited

Behavioral Methods Can Be Demanding

In fertility awareness methods, couples avoid coitus during the fertile window
The withdrawal method is simple but challenging
Noncoital sex can be used as a means of avoiding pregnancy
Combining long-acting methods and condoms makes sense
Box 9.3 Contraceptives and the Environment

There Are Contraceptive Options after Unprotected Coitus

Disabled Persons Have Special Contraceptive Needs

Lack of Access to Contraception Is a Global Problem

Several Safe Abortion Procedures Are Available

Vacuum aspiration is the standard first-trimester surgical method
Box 9.4 Abortion in the United States: Key Statistics
Dilation and evacuation is used early in the second trimester
Induced labor and hysterotomy are performed late in the second trimester
Medical abortions are two-step procedures
Abortions do not cause long-lasting ill effects

Americans Are Divided on Abortion, but Most Favor Restricted Availability

The availability of abortion is decreasing
Box 9.5 Feticide