Discovering Human Sexuality 4e Chapter 8 Outline

Pregnancy and Childbirth Raise Major Health Concerns

The Fertilization of an Ovum Is Followed by Implantation

Box 8.1 Birth Facts

Pregnancy Is Confirmed by Hormonal Tests

Infertility Can Result from a Problem in the Woman or in the Man

A variety of factors can reduce sperm counts
Box 8.2 The Scent of an Ovum
Sperm can be donated
In vitro fertilization can circumvent many sperm problems
Abnormalities of the female reproductive tract may reduce fertility
Failure to ovulate can be dealt with by drugs or by egg donation
Box 8.3 Choosing Children’s Sex
Surrogate mothers bear children for others
Adoption is limited by the supply of healthy infants
Fertility declines with age
Box 8.4 Commercial Gestational Surrogacy—An Ethical Minefield

Many Embryos Do Not Survive

Rh factor incompatibility can threaten second pregnancies
Ectopic pregnancy can endanger the mother’s life

Pregnancy Is Conventionally Divided into Three Trimesters

The First Trimester Is a Period of Major Changes

Prenatal care provides health screening, education, and support
Adequate nutrition is vital to a successful pregnancy
Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and radiation can harm the fetus

The Second Trimester Is the Easiest

Tests can detect fetal abnormalities
Sex during pregnancy is healthy
Moderate exercise during pregnancy is beneficial

The Third Trimester Is a Time of Preparation

A hospital is the best location for childbirth if
complications are foreseen
Childbirth classes prepare parents for birth
The fetus also makes preparations for birth

Labor Has Three Stages

The first stage of labor is marked by uterine contractions and cervical dilation
The second stage is the delivery of the baby
Box 8.5 Pain-free Childbirth
The newborn child adapts quickly
The third stage is the expulsion of the placenta
Premature or delayed birth is hazardous
Box 8.6 Cesarean Section

The Period after Birth Places Many Demands on Parents

Postpartum depression may be accompanied by disordered thinking
Childbirth and parenthood affect sexuality

Breast-Feeding Is the Preferred Method of Nourishing the Infant

Lactation is orchestrated by hormones
The content of breast milk changes over time
Infant formula is an alternative to breast milk
Breast-feeding has many advantages and some drawbacks