Discovering Human Sexuality 4e Chapter 4 Outline

Genes and Hormones Guide Sex Development

Female and male reproductive tracts develop from different precursors
Female and male external genitalia develop from the same precursors
The gonads descend during development
Puberty is sexual maturation
The brain also differentiates sexually

Sex Development Is not Always Binary

Unusual sets of chromosomes affect growth and fertility
The gonads or genitals may be sexually ambiguous
Box 4.1 My Life with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

There Are Sex Differences in Many Mental Traits

Gender identity does not always match anatomical sex
Women and men differ in a variety of cognitive and personality traits
There are many differences in sexuality
Many sex differences arise early in life

Biological Factors Underlie Sex Differences

Evolutionary forces act differently on females and males
Box 4.2 Gendered Play in Primates
Experiments demonstrate a role for sex hormones

Life Experiences Mold Sex Roles

Girls and boys are socialized differently
Cognitive developmental models emphasize thought processes

Transgender People Challenge Society’s Deepest Division

Box 4.3 The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl
Transexual individuals are of more than one kind
Box 4.4 Trans Men and Women in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Changing sex is a multistage process
Many transgender people do not want surgery
Trans people struggle for awareness and acceptance
Box 4.5 Tempest in a Toilet