1. Explain the view held by Christian missionaries regarding Inuit and non-Indigenous relations in the Far North and responses to that perspective.

    Answer: Christian missionaries believed that liquor was causing much harm to the Indigenous communities of the Far North. They were concerned for their well-being and that their society was disintegrating. At the request of the missionaries, the government sent the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) as their representative to deal with the situation. However, although the NWMP agreed that the free flow of liquor was a problem, the government felt that the missionaries were more concerned with the needs of the Indigenous people than those of non-Indigenous people. In the end, the missionaries’ concerns were realized, and disease and lifestyle disruption ended with the elimination of many of the original Indigenous Peoples in various locations throughout the North.
  1. Describe how and when the first permanent official presence was established in the Arctic.

    Answer: In 1903, the Canadian government sent the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) to establish posts at Herschel Island and Fort McPherson in the western Arctic. In the eastern part of the country, a regular official presence known as the Eastern Arctic Patrol was not established until 1922. From an administrative point of view, the Inuit were treated as though they were First Nations even though they were not included in the Indian Act, and the federal government refused to accept responsibility for them at first. It was not until 1924 that the Indian Act was amended to include the Inuit (however, they were excluded when the Act was amended in 1951).
  1. Who is Susan Aglukark and why is she important?

    Answer: The first Inuk musician to gain international recognition for her music was Susan Aglukark (b. 1967). She has been acclaimed through multiple awards including JUNOs, the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Medal, and acceptance as a member of the Order of Canada. Her music has served to raise awareness of Indigenous issues on a global level. Her humanist approach to music is paralleled by her work as an advocate for children and youth through many foundations and youth initiatives.
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