Chapter 15 Key Terms, Figures, or Sites

American Indian Movement: (1968–) A movement in support of Indigenous sovereignty and rights that arose in Minnesota and quickly spread into Canada, holding events in Manitoba by 1970. They were particularly concerned with the US policy of termination, which removed the nation-to-nation relationship and treaty rights from nations considered sufficiently “advanced,” similar to the proposals of the White Paper.

Assembly of First Nations: (AFN) The national representative organization of the First Nations in Canada. It grew out of the National Indian Brotherhood, which changed not only its name in 1982 but also its structure to become an “Organization of First Nations Government Leaders.”

Bill C-3: (The Gender Equity in Indian Registration Act 2010) granted 6(2) status to grandchildren of women who lost their status and regained it under Bill C-31 in 1985.

Bill C-31: (Second Generation Cut-Off Rule 1985) This amendment to the Indian Act restored Indian status to women who had lost it through marriage to non-status men as well as the ability to pass that status to their children. It also allowed children of such unions prior to 1985 to regain status and allowed anyone who had been involuntarily enfranchised (such as through getting a university degree) to regain their status. However, the bill also created new categories known as 6(1) status (one parent had status) and 6(2) status (grandparent had status, and parent was 6(1). A 6(2) could only pass on status to children if the other parent were a 6(1) or full status individual.

Bill S-3: (Eliminating Known Sex-Based Inequities in Registration 2017) Addressed remaining inequities impacting grandchildren and great-grandchildren born since 1951. Amended in 2019 to instead onsider inequities dating back to 1869.

Blue Quills: Opened in 1970, the first school in Canada administered by Indigenous people, near St Paul, Alberta, approximately 200 km northeast of Edmonton. In 2015, it evolved into University nuhelot’įne thaiyots’įnistameyimâkanak Blue Quills.

“code talkers”: Indigenous soldiers who served as radio operators during the First World War (US, Chocktaw) and the Second World War (Canada, Nehiyaw; US, Navajo, Lakhóta, and Comanche) receiving and transmitting coded messages in their Indigenous languages, thus creating a difficult to break “code within a code.”

Deskaheh: Guyohkohnyo title held by Haudenosaunee traditionalist leader Levi General (1873–1925), who sought sovereignty for his people at the League of Nations 1922–5.

“double mother” rule: (1951–85) An amendment to the Indian Act in 1951 that removed status when a child reached the age of 21 if both their mother and grandmother had obtained status through marriage. This ended with Bill C-31 in 1985.

Ewing Commission: Commission appointed in 1934 by the Alberta government to investigate social and economic conditions of the province’s Métis population and chaired by Justice Albert Freeman Ewing which produced a report in 1936. The report resulted in the Métis Population Betterment Act (1934) and the creation of Métis settlements (colonies) in Alberta.

Haldimand Proclamation: (1784) A decree by which Governor Sir Frederick Haldimand of Quebec awarded the Haldimand Grant to the Haudenosaunee in return for their alliance during the Revolutionary War. The Haudenosaunee argue that this grant was given to them in fee simple, such that they had the right to determine whether to sell, lease, or use the land at their own preference. However, the Crown, and later the government of Canada, has argued that the land was reserve land. The amount reserved for the Haudenosaunee was revised downward multiple times until it reached its current size of 46,500 acres.

Hawthorn Report: (1966) Report by anthropologist Harry B. Hawthorn on Indigenous social, educational, and economic conditions which supported the Indian Act, but recommended changes. Hawthorn criticized the existing assimilation policy and presented a view of Indigenous people as “citizens plus.” The report was received positively by Indigenous organizations and leaders.

Indian Control of Indian Education: (1972) A policy paper in response to the White Paper that argued intellectual and economic success did not require the loss of Indigenous Knowledge and called for more Indigenous control over the education of their youth.

National Indian Brotherhood: (NIB) (1968–82) National association resulting from the split of the National Indian Council into two bodies, one representing status and treaty Indigenous groups (NIB), the other non-status Indians and Métis (Native Council of Canada). It lasted until 1982 when it was replaced by the Assembly of First Nations (AFN).

Native Women’s Association of Canada: (NWAC 1974– ) National advocacy group for Indigenous women, girls, and gender diverse persons focusing on ensuring that the voice of women is present during government consultations and ending violence against missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls.

Peacekeepers: Self-governed police force formed in Kahnawake, near Montreal, following a breakdown in relations with the Quebec provincial police. It eventually became the reserve’s official law enforcement body.

“Red Paper” (Citizens Plus, 1970): An official response to the White Paper from the Indian Association of Alberta rejecting wardship but arguing for special status as defined by treaty rights. The White Paper was withdrawn as a result.

Saint-Paul-des Métis: First tract of land set aside for Métis settlement, in 1896 in Alberta.

“Sixties Scoop”: Expression referring to the large-scale practice from the 1950s–80s of removing Indigenous children from their communities and placing them for adoption into non-Indigenous families.

Warrior movement: A militant, nationalist movement among the Kanien’keha:ka, described as the defence arm of the Longhouse religion but not universally accepted as such. The Warrior movement was founded by Louis Hall in the early twentieth century but is opposed by some traditionalists, who point out that the teachings of Shanyadariyoh focus on peace, not warlike behaviour, and that the founder of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Dekanawidah (“the Peacemaker”), brought and taught peace to the Five Nations. The Warriors were principal actors during the Oka crisis and at Caledonia.

White Paper: (1969) A white paper, or parliamentary paper, is a document in which the government presents its policy or proposed policy on a specific topic. In the Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969, the Liberal government put forward its proposal to dismantle the Indian Act, which would end hindrances on Indigenous economic development but at the cost of being organized as self-governing entities with treaty rights.

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