1. Who was Frances Nickawa and why was she important?

    Answer: Frances Nickawa (1891–1927) was a Nehiyaw storyteller and orator who became famous in the early twentieth century. A native of Split Lake, Manitoba, she was taken to the Norway House Residential School where she was adopted by the school’s sewing teacher. They moved to Vancouver, where Frances started her performance career as a soloist and elocutionist. Her renditions of Nehiyaw stories garnered increasingly large audiences, which led her to widespread fame. Her Western Canadian rail tour in 1919 was well-received. The following year, she toured full-time, performing throughout Canada and as far as Britain and Australia. She played an important role in raising awareness of Indigenous Peoples, especially the Nehiyawak.
  1. What important contributions did Indigenous Peoples make during World War I?

    Answer: Indigenous Peoples throughout the country contributed to the war effort. One specific example is the raising of substantial amounts for the Red Cross by the Káínaa people in Western Canada. Despite the poverty on reserves, First Peoples still gave generously. By the same token, approximately 4,000 First Nations soldiers served even though they were not treated equally afterward as veterans.
  1. What were the legal implications of assuming a Métis identity?

    Answer: Métis people are not considered status Indians in the same sense as First Nations. Even though Métis are recognized as Aboriginal people in the Constitution Act of 1982, it was not until the 2016 Daniels v. Canada decision of the Supreme Court that they too were recognized as having the same legal distinction as Indigenous Peoples. This decision affirmed that the Métis have the same rights as status Indians under the Constitution Act of 1867 and that Canada (not provinces) has the same legislative responsibilities to Métis (and non-status Indians) as it does to status Indians and Inuit. The previous legal position of the Métis people was no different than any other Canadian citizen.