Framing Business Ethics: Corporate Responsibility, Stakeholders, and Citizenship

Bansal, P. (2005) ‘Evolving Sustainably: A Longitudinal Study of Corporate Sustainable Development’, Strategic Management Journal, 26: 197-218.
This article illustrates some of the macro factors that influence corporate sustainable development.

Brower, J. and Mahajan, V., 2013. Driven to be good: A stakeholder theory perspective on the drivers of corporate social performance. Journal of business ethics, 117(2), pp.313-331.
This article analyses how the characteristics of the stakeholder landscape influences the breadth of a firm’s corporate social performance.

Carroll, A. 1979. A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance. Academy of Management Review 4(4): 497-505.
An early seminal piece on defining and better understanding corporate social performance.

Carroll, A., Lipartito, K., Post, J., Werhane, P. 2012. Goodpaster, K (Ed.). ‘Corporate Responsibility: Experience’. Cambridge: Cambridge University         Press. 
Excellent new examination of the American history and understanding of Corporate Responsibility.

Carroll, A.B., 2016. Carroll’s pyramid of CSR: taking another look. International journal of corporate social responsibility, 1(1), p.3.
The author revisits his CSR pyramid, presenting a four-part definitional framework and discussses elements of the model that were not emphasized when first published.

Clarkson, M. B. E. 1995. A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 20(1): 92-117.
The author presents conclusions of a ten-year research programme. It stresses the importance of distinguishing between stakeholder issues and social issues.

Donaldson, T. and Preston, L. 1995. The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence and Implications. Academy of Management Review 20(1):65-91.
This paper explores and expands our understanding of stakeholder theory, and illustrates three different types.

Fifka, M.S., 2013. Corporate citizenship in Germany and the United States–differing perceptions and practices in transatlantic comparison. Business Ethics: A European Review, 22(4), pp.341-356
This article examines the socio-economic environment for corporate citizenship in Germany and the US, and what corporate citizenship practices are used by businesses.

Fleming, P. and Jones, M. 2013. ‘The End of Corporate Social Responsibility: Crisis and Critique’. London: Sage.
A critical view of the CSR movement. A valuable piece to balance out some of the optimists.

Freeman, R. E. 1984. 'Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach'. Boston: Pitman.
The book is considered to have been the starting point for using stakeholder theory in business literature.

Freeman, R. E. 1994. The politics of stakeholder theory: Some future directions. Business Ethics Quarterly, 4(4): 409-421.
Freeman builds on earlier work to clarify foundational issues of the stakeholder approach.

Friedman, M. 1970. The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase It’s Profits. New York Times Magazine, Sept. 13, 32/33.
An early seminal piece refuting the idea of corporate social responsibility.

Garriga, E. and Mele, D. 2004. Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53: 51-71.
A categorization and grouping of the multitude of CSR theories in the literature.

Harrison, J.S. and Wicks, A.C., 2013. Stakeholder theory, value, and firm performance. Business Ethics Quarterly, 23(1), pp.97-124.
This paper seeks to use insights from stakeholder theory to look beyond an economic notion of value which is used to develop a four-factor perspective for defining value.

Kolk, A., & Pinkse, J. 2007. Towards strategic stakeholder management? Integrating perspectives on sustainability challenges such as corporate responses to climate change. Corporate Governance, 7(4): 370-378.
The authors show that corporate strategy on an issue depends on the types of stakeholders a company proactively engages with, and on stakeholders’ control of critical resources. They use climate change as an example.

Lamberti, L. and Noci, G., 2012. The relationship between CSR and corporate strategy in medium‐sized companies: evidence from Italy. Business Ethics: A European Review, 21(4), pp.402-416.
This paper examines CSR in a small business context, identifying four peculiarities of SMEs’ approach to CSR.

Mitchell, R., Agle, B. and Wood, D. 1997. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4): 853-886.
This article provides a method for identifying stakeholders based on urgency, legitimacy and power.

Moon, J., Crane, A. and Matten, D. 2011. Corporations and citizenship in new institutions of global governance. In C. Crouch and C. MacLean (Eds.), ‘The       
Responsible Corporation in a Global Economy’. Oxford: Oxford University             Press.
Article tying discussions of corporate citizenship to larger discussions of global governance.

Palazzo, G., & Scherer, A. G. 2008. The future of global corporate citizenship: Toward a new theory of the firm as a political actor. In A. G. Scherer, & G. Palazzo (Eds.), 'Handbook of research on global corporate citizenship'. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Chapter in Palazzo and Scherer’s book on corporate citizenship in which they discuss the future of corporate citizenship, as part of engagement in multi-stakeholder processes of global governance.

Scherer, A. and Palazzo, G. 2011. The new political role of business in a globalized world: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm,      
governance, and democracy. Journal of Management Studies, 48(4): 899-931.
An important article on ‘political CSR’ that brings together many of the threads of this chapter. Argues that companies are taking over new spaces previously inhabited by states.

Secchi, D. 2007. Utilitarian, managerial and relational theories of corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Management Reviews, 9(4): 347-373.
New review of concepts and theories of CSR, taking recent developments into account. Secchi identifies three groups of CSR theories.

Shamir, R. (2004) ‘Between Self-Regulation and the Alien Tort Claims Act: On the Contested Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility’, Law & Society Review, 38(4): 635-664.
This article describes cases of MNCs sued in the US for human rights abuses in other countries and is used to illustrate the way society discusses these issues has implications for what happens in practice.

Swanson, D. 2014. ‘Embedding CSR Into Corporate Culture: Challenging the    
Executive Mind’. London: Palgrave McMillan.
Tackles the challenge of CSR and how to integrate it into the everyday norms, values, and interactions of a firm.

Windsor, D. 2006. Corporate Social Responsibility: Three Key Approaches. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1): 93-114.
A comparison of the more common approaches to corporate social responsibility.