Transcription and RNA processing are followed by translation, the synthesis of proteins as directed by mRNA templates. Proteins are the active players in most cell processes, implementing the myriad tasks that are directed by the information encoded in genomic DNA. Protein synthesis is thus the final stage of gene expression. However, the translation of mRNA is only the first step in the formation of a functional protein. The polypeptide chain must then fold into the appropriate three-dimensional conformation and, frequently, undergo various processing steps before being converted to its active form. These processing steps, particularly in eukaryotes, are intimately related to the sorting and transport of different proteins to their appropriate destinations within the cell.

Gene expression is controlled not only at the level of transcription (see Chapter 9), but also at the level of translation, and this control is an important element of gene regulation. Of even broader significance, however, are the mechanisms that control the activities of proteins within cells. Once synthesized, most proteins can be regulated in response to extracellular signals either by covalent modifications or by association with other molecules. In addition, the levels of proteins within cells can be controlled by differential rates of protein degradation. These multiple controls of both the amounts and activities of intracellular proteins ultimately regulate all aspects of cell behavior.