Chapter 14 Outline


The Diversity of Environmental Signals

Predator Deterrent Signals

  • Detection and camouflage
  • Notifying predators about prey suitability
  • Last-ditch prey signals to predators

Alarm Signals

  • Surveillance signals
  • Mobbing signals
  • Victim signals
  • Other economic considerations

Food Signals

  • Basic economics
  • Amount of information


  • Bat echolocation
  • Cetacean echolocation
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