Populations of Study
  • Baltar, Fabiola, and Ignasi Brunet. 2012. “Social Research 2.0: Virtual Snowball Sampling Method Using Facebook.” Internet Research 22 (1): 57–74.

Presents a sampling method that uses social networking sites to study populations that are “hard‐to‐reach.”

  • Canada. Statistics Canada. 2013. “Sampling Error.” 23 July.


Defines the sampling errors that should be considered when interpreting sample survey data.

  • Creative Research Systems. 2012. “Sample Size Calculator.


Online calculator that allows users to determine a sample based on a specific confidence interval and confidence level.

  • Tansey, Oisín. 2007. “Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing: A Case for Non-Probability Sampling.” PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (October): 765–72.

Explores the relationship between process tracing and elite interviewing as well as the role that non-probability sampling plays in the application of these two methodological approaches.

  • Stephenson, Laura B; Harell, Allison; Rubenson, Daniel; Loewen, Peter John, 2020, "2019 Canadian Election Study - Phone Survey Technical Report.pdf", 2019 Canadian Election Study - Phone Survey, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/8RHLG1/1PBGR3, Harvard Dataverse, V1.
  • The CES is mentioned in the text of the chapter, and like many social science studies, the dataset and documentation is available publicly for other researchers to study. At this link, you can read the technical details for the CES, including their sampling strategy.