Messages that move from boss to subordinate, higher rank to lower rank.

An organization's members who put their own take on daily events and provide entertainment.

A system whose components continuously interact not only with one another, but with the environment outside the system.

Learning about work through a lifetime of communication.

Guardians of the organization’s cultural values. They are much respected by all levels of the hierarchy and know the organization’s history.

Informal chain of communication that spreads through an organization, often leading to message distortion.

Self-imposed suppression of dissent in upward messages.

An organization that effectively socializes and assimilates its members.

Drive, visible interest, and the incentive to produce.

Levels of power within the organization.

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