The difference between most people's rate of speech and the rate at which the brain can process language.

The physical process of receiving sounds.

Actively making meaning from the spoken messages of others.

Listeners who tend to neglect the emotional and nonverbal aspect of a speaker's behavior, instead relying on rational appraisal based on their educational training.

Paying close attention to more than the simple denotative meaning of speakers' words.

Noncommittal responses that show that you have interest in what is being said.

The mutual and simultaneous exchange of information that ensures the efficient transaction of meaning making.

Memory devices based on patterns drawn from what is heard.

Listening undertaken when we need to make a decision based on the information that is offered to us.

Words that carry so much emotion that they cloud reason.