Distance zone implying little intimacy and indicating a more formal language environment.

When a speaker complements, contradicts, repeats, substitutes for, or regulates a verbal message with nonverbal cues.

The use of body motions to make meaning.

Communication that occurs when messages are relayed and meaning made without the use of the spoken word.

Emotional gestures.

The space people consider theirs.

Communicating through touch.

The use of time in nonverbal communication.

Objects people use to identify themselves, helping to define themselves and their environments.

The use of space and distance to make meaning.