When a speaker complements, contradicts, repeats, substitutes for, or regulates a verbal message with nonverbal cues.

Objects people use to identify themselves, helping to define themselves and their environments.

The use of space and distance to make meaning.

The space people consider theirs.

The use of time in nonverbal communication.

The use of body motions to make meaning.

Distance zone implying little intimacy and indicating a more formal language environment.

Communication that occurs when messages are relayed and meaning made without the use of the spoken word.

Emotional gestures.

Communicating through touch.

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