Gathering information about audience characteristics in preparation for a speech.

Societal sharing of ideas through conversation; an important reason to develop speaking skills.

Generating ideas for speech topics by making lists of items from areas of interest in a speaker’s life.

Generating ideas for speech topics through free association of words and ideas.

Speeches designed to either move the audience toward your opinion on a specific subject or reinforce existing opinions.

Plagiarism involved when a speaker steals a speech in its entirety, claiming it as his or her own.

Pronouncing words clearly.

Speeches designed to convey knowledge and understanding.

Presenting for only a few people, for example at a business meeting or before a church group.

Plagiarism involved when the speaker has plagiarized from more than one source, puts the material together as if it is unique, and attempts to credit it as her or his own.