Transforming a message into an understandable sign and symbol system.

Response to a message that the sender looks for to see if there was effective communication.

View of communication that sees it as a process of sending information from one person to another.

A generalization about a group that may not be accurate to all of that group.

A way to understand how people’s sense of self develops from their ongoing, interlinked conversations in and with a culture.

Collective cultural experience held by a majority of the people.

Interferences with the process of communication that can be physical or physiological.

Mental structures built from past experiences that we use to process new information and organize new experiences.

Being aware of and making meaning from the world around us.

Something that signals the presence of something specific, more or less an objective substitute for that thing.