Useful websites


On institutions internationally, see US Social Security Administration, Social Security Programs Throughout the World.

See also:

Society at a Glance,

Pensions at a Glance,

Health at a Glance,

Education at a Glance,

published every two years by the OECD.

For up-to-date information on UK government spending in user-friendly form, see

Economic theory

For an online text on basic economic theory, see CORE Team (2019), The Economy: Economics for a Changing World, first edition, available free at: (also in French).


For wide-ranging data on the distribution of income, see the World Wealth and Income Database,

On gender aspects of poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, see the UN Women Annual Report,, and the OECD gender portal,

Cash benefits

For a summary of systems of cash benefits worldwide published by the US Social Security Administration, see Social Security Programs throughout the World (, updated on a rolling basis, and the in-country resources listed therein.

For wide-ranging discussion, see also OECD Society at a Glance, updated regularly, available at:


OECD Pensions at a Glance, available from, published every two years, provides a compendious overview of pensions in OECD countries.

On the European Union, see the European Commission’s Ageing Report, published annually. The Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index,, as its name implies, offers an index, updated annually, of the performance of pension systems in a wide range of countries.

On non-contributory basic pensions see the database at

For an easy-to-read description of UK pension institutions, see the Pensions Primer, published annually by the Pensions Policy Institute,

Poverty and inequality

See the resources under Distribution, above.

Health and health care

On systems internationally, see OECD Health at a Glance, published every 2 years, and the reports from the World Health Organization Global Health Observatory:

For assessment of the UK National Health Service, see King’s Fund, How is the NHS performing? Quarterly monitoring report,


On systems internationally, see OECD Education at a Glance, published every 2 years, available at:

A view to the future

On policies to address the new social risks, see the various contributions to Finance and Development, The Age of Insecurity, December 2018,