Chapter 1 – Introduction

  • United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals: https://sdgs.un.org/goals. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Member States in 2015, has 17 Sustainable Development Goals, which are designed to be an urgent call for action by all countries.
  • Our World in Data’s page on Global Extreme Poverty: https://ourworldindata.org/extreme-poverty. Our World in Data is a scientific online publication that focuses on large global problems. This entry covers their charts, data and insights on extreme poverty.
  • Devex: https://www.devex.com/news. Devex is a social enterprise and media platform for the global development community.
  • Centre for Global Development: https://www.cgdev.org/. The Centre for Global Development is a non-profit think tank based in Washington, D.C. and London that focuses on international development.
  • United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019: https://unfccc.int/cop25. The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the UNFCCC.

Chapter 2 – Poverty and Inequality

  • World Bank poverty topic page: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty. The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low and middle income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. This page provides access to World Bank reports, data and information on poverty and their programs working to reduce poverty.
  • World Inequality Database: https://wid.world/. The World Inequality Database is an extensive, open and accessible database on the historical evolution of the world distribution of income and wealth, both within and between countries.
  • Our World in Data, global economic inequality: https://ourworldindata.org/global-economic-inequality. This entry by Our World in Data presents a collection of material and evidence on global economic inequality. It considers how global inequality has changed over time and “is predicted to continue changing in the future”.
  • Human Development Report, The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index: http://hdr.undp.org/en/2020-MPI. The global multidimensional poverty index 2020 “compares acute multidimensional poverty for 107 countries in developing rejoins… the global MPI 2020 provides a detailed image of who is poor and how they are poor”.
  • Innovations for Poverty Action: https://www.poverty-action.org/. Innovations for Poverty Action is a research and policy non-profit that seeks to address global poverty problems.

Chapter 3 – Meanings and Views of Development

  • Human Development Report, The Human Development Index: http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi. The HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development.
  • The International Development Association of the World Bank Group: https://ida.worldbank.org/. The IDA is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Overseen by 173 shareholder nations, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing zero to low-interest loans and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities, and improve people’s living conditions.
  • United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals: https://sdgs.un.org/goals. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Member States in 2015, has 17 Sustainable Development Goals, which are designed to be an urgent call for action by all countries.
  • The University of Manchester Global Development Institute Blog: http://blog.gdi.manchester.ac.uk/from-international-development-to-global-development/. This blog entry explores the need to shift away from the idea of ‘international’ development to ‘global’ development as a reflection of the way global trends in inequalities and poverty have changed.
  • New insights on poverty, Hans Rosling TED talk: https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_new_insights_on_poverty/discussion. Researcher Hans Rosling presents data here on poverty to challenge perceptions about developing countries. He shows trends in health and economics.

Chapter 4 – Agencies of Development

  • Overseas Development Institute: Overseas Development Institute. The ODI is an think tank on international development and humanitarian issues.
  • A History of Modern Philosophy: https://www.historyofgiving.org/. The National Philanthropic Trust presents a timeline of the history of philanthropy, charting “the different forms that philanthropy has taken throughout modern history and around the world”.
  • Asian Development Bank: https://www.adb.org/. The Asian Development Bank is a regional development bank established in 1966. It is headquartered in the Philippines.
  • The Union of International Associations: http://www.uia.be. The Union of International Associations is a non-profit non-governmental research institute and documentation center which operates under a United Nations mandate.
  • UN structure: https://www.un.org/en/model-united-nations/un-structure. This webpage unpacks the structure of the United Nations.

Chapter 5 – Hunger and Famine

  • Our World in Data, Famines: https://ourworldindata.org/famines. This entry by Our World in Data focuses on the history of famine and famine mortality over time.
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System: http://www.fao.org/giews/en/. The GIEWS “continuously monitors food supply and demand and other key indicators for assessing the overall food security situation in all countries of the world”.
  • Famine Early Warning Systems Network: https://fews.net/. The FEWS Network provides early warning and analysis on food insecurity. It was created by USAID in 1985.
  • Global Hunger Index: https://www.globalhungerindex.org/. The Global Hunger Index is a tool designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels.
  • IPC Global Platform: http://www.ipcinfo.org/. The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification provides an internationally-recognised scientific standard to assess food insecurity and acute malnutrition situations.

Chapter 6 – Diseases of Poverty

  • The DHS Program. https://dhsprogram.com/. The DHS Program supports a range of data collection options that can be tailored to fit specific demographic and health survey monitoring and evaluation needs of host countries.
  • The RBM Partnership to End Malaria: https://endmalaria.org/. The RBM Partnership is the global platform for coordinated action against malaria. The Partnership is comprised of more than 500 partners, including malaria endemic countries, their bilateral and multilateral development partners, the private sector, nongovernmental and community-based organizations, foundations, and research and academic institutions.
  • The WHO Global Coordination Mechanism on the Prevention and Control of NCDs: https://www.who.int/global-coordination-mechanism/ncd-themes/poverty-development/en/. The Global Coordination Mechanism on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, GCM/NCD, established in 2014, is the first and only WHO instrument aimed at facilitating multi-stakeholder engagement and cross-sectoral collaboration to prevent and control NCDs.
  • NCD Synergies: http://ncdsynergies.org/. NCD Synergies is a project of Partners In Health providing support to policymakers in low income countries for addressing NCDs and injuries of the poorest.
  • Key facts: poverty and poor health, Health Poverty Action: https://www.healthpovertyaction.org/news-events/key-facts-poverty-and-poor-health/. This blog post by Health Poverty Action explores the links between poverty and poor health.

Chapter 7 – Poverty and Education

Chapter 8 – Unemployment and Making a Living

Chapter 9 – Population, Poverty and Development

  • STATcompiler: https://dhsprogram.com/data/statcompiler.cfm. STATcompiler is a tool that allows users to build custom tables, charts, and maps from thousands of indicators across 90 countries. STATcompiler is meant to help users compare DHS data across countries and across time.
  • World Population Prospects 2019: https://population.un.org/wpp/. The twenty-sixth round of official United Nations population estimates and projections that have been prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat.
  • POPLINE, POPulation information onLINE: https://www.popline.org/. Citations with abstracts to scientific articles, reports, books, and unpublished reports in the field of population, family planning, and related health issues.
  • The Lancet Series on Counting Births and Deaths: http://www.thelancet.com/series/counting-births-and-deaths. This series by The Lancet describes the push for civil registration and vital statistics systems in countries and in the global health and development community more broadly, driven by the need for accountability for the SDG post-2015 era.
  • The 2020 World Population Data Sheet: https://www.prb.org/worldpopdata/. Offers the latest population, health, and environment indicators for more than 200 countries and territories.

Chapter 10 – Environmental Degradation and Sustainability

Chapter 11 – War and Armed Conflict

  • Freedom House: www.freedomhouse.org/. Produces research and reports on a number of core thematic issues related to democracy, political rights and civil liberties.
  • United Nations International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals: http://unictr.unmict.org/. Legacy website of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
  • University of Minnesota Human Rights Library: http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/. More than 65,000 human rights documents and materials.
  • War and Peace, Our World in Data: https://ourworldindata.org/war-and-peace. This entry from Our World in Data presents an empirical perspective on the history of war and peace.
  • War and Law, ICRC: https://www.icrc.org/en/war-and-law. The International Committee of the Red Cross topic page on international humanitarian law. This page provides links to their relevant blogs, research and sources of international humanitarian law.

Chapter 12 - Diversity in Pre-capitalist Societies

Chapter 13 – Colonialism, Capitalism, Development

  • The economic impact of colonialism, Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson: https://voxeu.org/article/economic-impact-colonialism. Acemoglu and Robinson discuss the ways that colonialism has shaped modern inequality in “several fundamental, but heterogeneous, ways”. This column was published in VoxEU,
  • Colonialism, entry for the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/colonialism/. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy provides an online encyclopaedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of open-access papers in philosophy. This entry provides an overview of the vast literature emerging out of the experience of European colonization.
  • World Trade Organization: https://www.wto.org/. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations.
  • Capitalism, BBC Radio 4: In Our Time: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00545kv. Melvin Bragg discusses the history of capitalism on a BBC Radio 4 podcast episode. He “examines whether we have witnessed its triumph or if we are only now learning the full costs and the social impact of its unfettered advance”.
  • Capitalism, Encyclopedia entry by The Library of Economics and Liberty: https://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Capitalism.html. Robert Hessen explores the history, development and critiques of capitalism in an Encyclopedia entry by The Library of Economics and Liberty.

Chapter 14 – The Power of Colonial States

Chapter 15 – The Era of Development – A Short History

  • The International Forum on Globalization: http://ifg.org/. The IFG is an international alliance of activists, academics, economists, researchers and writers providing analyses and critiques on the impacts of economic globalization.
  • The Global Policy Forum: https://www.globalpolicy.org/globalization/links-and-resources-on-globalization.html. A collection of links and resources on globalization.
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. Access to the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a milestone document in the history of human rights. Proclaimed on 10 December 1948.
  • The Bretton Woods Committee: https://www.brettonwoods.org/. The Bretton Woods Committee was created in 1983. It was established to set up a new system of rules and regulations to ensure their economic stability in the post-World War II era. Bretton Woods established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
  • The United Nations homepage: http://www.un.org/en/index.html. The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States.

Chapter 16 – Socialist Models of Development and the Rise of China

  • Socialism, entry for the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/socialism/. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy provides an online encyclopaedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of open-access papers in philosophy. This entry presents the main features of socialism, both as a critique of capitalism and as a proposal for its replacement.
  • An Anticapitalism That Can Win, Dylan Riley: https://www.jacobinmag.com/2016/01/olin-wright-real-utopias-socialism-capitalism-gramsci-lenin-luxemburg/. Dylan Riley is an associate professor of sociology at the University of California Berkley. In this article, published by Jacobin magazine, he argues that “we should engage with and update the revolutionary Marxist tradition – not reject it”.
  • Introduction to Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism, Kwame Nkrumah: https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/nkrumah/neo-colonialism/. First published in 1965, this is an excerpt from former Prime Minister and President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah’s book Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism.
  • The World Bank in China: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/china. This webpage details economic data and reports on China. It links to key World Bank projects and results reporting.
  • Socialism Goes Global: Cold War Connections Between the 'Second' and 'Third Worlds': http://socialismgoesglobal.exeter.ac.uk. This AHRC-funded project explores a “the transmission, circulation and reception of values, cultures, and beliefs between what western contemporaries called the 'Second' and 'Third Worlds’”.

Chapter 17 – Democratization, Governance, and Development

  • Varieties of Democracy: https://www.v-dem.net/en/. V-Dem provides a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset to conceptualize and measure democracy. The V-Dem project distinguishes between five high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian, and collects data to measure these principles.
  • openDemocracy: https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/. openDemocracy is an independent global media organization based in the UK which reports and analyses social and political issues across the world.
  • ElectionGuide: http://www.electionguide.org/elections/id/3001/. ElectionGuide is a resource provided by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, an international nonprofit aimed at promoting democracies “that deliver for all”.
  • Democracy, entry for the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/democracy/. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy provides an online encyclopaedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of open-access papers in philosophy. This entry outlines different approaches to the question of why democracy is morally desirable, what it is reasonable to expect from citizens in large democratic societies and more.
  • Worldwide Governance Indicators: https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/. The WGI rank countries with respect to six aspects of good governance. It is based on a long-standing research program of the World Bank.

Chapter 18 – Rethinking Gender Matters in Development

  • The International Center for Research on Women: https://www.icrw.org/. A global research institute comprising social scientists, economists, public health specialists and demographers, all of whom are experts in gender.
  • The International Association for Feminist Economics: http://www.iaffe.org/. A non-profit organization that seeks to advance feminist inquiry of economic issues and to educate economists and others on feminist points of view on economic issues.
  • DAC Network on Gender Equality: http://www.oecd.org/dac/gender-development/About-GENDERNET.htm. Aims to improve policies and practices to strengthen gender equality in development programs and to secure girls’ and women’s rights, contributing to the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development.
  • The Urgency of Intersectionality, Kimberlé Crenshaw: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akOe5-UsQ2o. TED talk by Kimberlé Crenshaw on the importance of an “intersectionality” approach to understand the implications of different and overlapping forms of exclusion.
  • The Sex, Gender and COVID-19 project: https://globalhealth5050.org/the-sex-gender-and-covid-19-project/. The COVID-19 Sex-Disaggregated Data Tracker provides data from across the globe to illuminate the role sex and gender are playing in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Chapter 19 – Engineering for Development

Chapter 20 – New Directions and Challenges for Health and Development

  • The Lancet Global Health: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/home. This link provides open access articles from The Lancet Global Health, including original research, commentary, and correspondence on all aspects of global health.
  • Urgent health challenges for the next decade, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General: https://www.who.int/news-room/photo-story/photo-story-detail/urgent-health-challenges-for-the-next-decade. This article, published by the World Health Organization (WHO) at the beginning of 2020, outlined thirteen “urgent, global health challenges”.
  • Global Health Observatory, World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/gho/en/. The GHO data repository is WHO's gateway to health-related statistics for its 194 Member States, providing access to data on over 1000 indicators.
  • Global Burden of Disease resources: http://www.healthdata.org/gbd. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation is a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation. Published in The Lancet in October 2020, the GBD 2019 provides an independent estimate of population, for each of 204 countries and territories and the globe, as well as a comprehensive update on fertility and migration.
  • The African Population and Health Research Center: https://aphrc.org/. The African Population and Health Research Center is a leading pan-African research institution headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya that conducts policy-relevant research on population, health, education, urbanization and related development issues across Africa.

Chapter 21 – Migration, Security, and Development

  • UNHCR: http://www.unhcr.org. The United Nations’ Refugee Agency is a global organization committed to issues relating to refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people.
  • Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre: https://www.internal-displacement.org/. Provides data, analysis and expertise on internal displacement worldwide.
  • The International Disaster Database: https://emdat.be/. Aims to support disaster preparedness and humanitarian action at national and international levels. Covers historical data from 1900 to the present day.
  • Migration Data Portal: https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=stock_abs_&t=2019. Provides access to migration statistics globally. It is managed by the International Organization for Migration’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre.
  • Migration Law Database by the International Organization for Migration: https://imldb.iom.int/_layouts/15/IML.Portal/AppPages/Home.aspx. Consolidates migration related instruments and relevant norms regulating migration at the international and regional levels.

Chapter 22 – Digital Technologies and the Future of Poverty and Development

Chapter 23 – City Life

  • UN Habitat: https://unhabitat.org/. UN-Habitat is the United Nations agency for human settlements. It is mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.
  • The Urban Institute: https://www.urban.org/. The Urban Institute is a Washington D.C.-based think tank established in 1968 to study urban problems.
  • Urban planning needs to look back, first three cities in Ghana show why: https://theconversation.com/urban-planning-needs-to-look-back-first-three-cities-in-ghana-show-why-144913. An article published in The Conversation arguing for a historical perspective on the fields of urban planning, public health and social work and their implications for urban inequality.
  • The International Institute for Environment and Development’s page on Urban Matters: https://www.iied.org/urban-matters. The IIED Urban Matters blog focuses on urban poverty, climate change in cities and rural-urban linkages.
  • Arup’s page on cities: https://www.arup.com/expertise/industry/cities. Arup applies its research, technical, design and commercial knowledge to questions of city development. They partner with the World Economic Forum, The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and the Rockefeller Foundation, among others.

Chapter 24 – Identity Politics and Clashing Cultures

  • Identity Politics, entry for the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-politics/. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy provides an online encyclopaedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of open-access papers in philosophy. This entry outlines the history, scope and philosophical engagement with identity politics.
  • Religion in International Affairs, the Belfer Center of Harvard University: https://web.archive.org/web/20161206100016/http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/project/57/religion_in_international_affairs.html. The Belfer Center and the Kennedy School of Harvard University launched an initiative exploring the role of religion in international affairs, demonstrating the “powerful impact of religion on modern society and … on global affairs” in 2007. This links to the archive of that initiative, including its outputs.
  • How Political is the Personal?: Identity Politics, Feminism and Social Change, Joan D. Mandle: https://userpages.umbc.edu/~korenman/wmst/identity_pol.html. This article by Joan Mandle explores the influence of identity politics on the development of feminism.
  • ReliefWeb: https://reliefweb.int/. A humanitarian information service provided by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. ReliefWeb collects information from more than 4,000 key sources, including humanitarian agencies at the international and local levels, governments, think-tanks and research institutions, and the media.
  • Why identity politics benefits the right more than the left, Sheri Berman: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jul/14/identity-politics-right-left-trump-racism. An opinion piece published in the Guardian in 2018 exploring the nature of identity politics and its implications in the US.

Chapter 25 – Climate Change and the End of Development

  • The Climate and Development Knowledge Network: https://cdkn.org/. Produce knowledge, research and technical advisory in support of locally owned and managed policy processes.
  • Global Climate Change Indicators for the National Centers for Environmental Information: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/indicators.php. This page presents the latest information from several independent measures of observed climate change.
  • Educational Global Climate Modelling: http://edgcm.columbia.edu/. This tool provides a research-grade Global Climate Model tool for students to explore the subject of climate change. 
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: https://www.ipcc.ch/. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.
  • Climate change articles from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-change. This thread brings together the articles published by the Guardian on climate change.

Chapter 26 – Returning to the ‘Great Transformation’