Batista, K. B., Thiruvenkatachari, B., Harrison, J. E., and O’Brien, K. D. (2018). Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, Art. No.: CD003452. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003452.pub4 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003452.pub4/full

This systematic review discusses the evidence behind the treatment of patients with increased overjets, and includes summaries of the best quality studies using functional appliances.

 

Dolce, C., McGorray, S. P., Brazeau, L., King, G. J., and Wheeler, T. T. (2007). Timing of Class II treatment: skeletal changes comparing 1-phase and 2-phase treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 132, 481–9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.08.046] [PubMed: 17920501]

O’Brien, K. D., Wright, J., Conboy, F., Appelbe, P., Davies, L., Connolly, I., et al. (2009). Early treatment for Class II division 1 malocclusion with the twin-block appliance: a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 135, 573–9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.10.042] [PubMed: 19409339]

O’Brien, K. D., Wright, J., Conboy, F., Sanjie, Y., Mandall, N., Chadwick, S., et al. (2003). Effectiveness of treatment for Class II malocclusion with the Herbst or twin-block appliances: a randomised controlled trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 124, 128–37. [DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(03)00345-7] [PubMed: 12923506]

Tulloch, J. F. C., Proffit, W. R., and Phillips, C. (2004). Outcomes in a 2-phase randomized clinical trial of early class II treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 125, 657–67. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2004.02.008] [PubMed: 15179390]

These four papers describe randomized controlled clinical trials involving functional appliances and are well worth reading.

 

Franchi, L., Bacetti, T., and McNamara, J. A. (2000). Mandibular growth as related to cervical vertebral maturation and body height. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118, 335–40. [DOI: 10.1067/mod.2000.107009] [PubMed: 10982936]

This paper describes how to determine the peak stage of growth of the mandible by looking at the development and maturation of the cervical vertebrae visible on lateral skull radiographs.