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Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
  2. Chapter one: Defining the constitution
  3. Chapter two: Parliamentary sovereignty
  4. Chapter three: The rule of law and the separation of powers
  5. Chapter four: The royal prerogative
  6. Chapter five: The House of Commons
  7. Chapter six: The House of Lords
  8. Chapter seven: The electoral system
  9. Chapter eight: Parliamentary privilege
  10. Chapter nine: Constitutional conventions
  11. Chapter ten: Local government
  12. Chapter eleven: Parliamentary sovereignty within the European Union
  13. Chapter twelve: The governance of Scotland and Wales
  14. Chapter thirteen: Substantive grounds of judicial review 1: illegality, irrationality and proportionality
  15. Chapter fourteen: Procedural grounds of judicial review
  16. Chapter fifteen: Challenging governmental decisions: the process
  17. Chapter sixteen: Locus standi
  18. Chapter seventeen: Human rights I: Traditional perspectives
  19. Chapter eighteen: Human rights II: Emergent principles
    1. Malone v United Kingdom (1984) 7 EHRR 14
    2. Laskey, Jaggard and Brown v United Kingdom (1996) 24 EHRR 39
    3. Lingens v Austria (1986) 8 EHRR 407
    4. Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers Ltd and others [1992] 3 All ER 65 (CA)
    5. Sunday Times v United Kingdom (1979) 2 EHRR 245
    6. Gay News and Lemon v United Kingdom (1982) 5 EHRR 123.
    7. Wingrove v United Kingdom (1996) 24 EHRR 1
    8. X Ltd and another v Morgan-Grampian (Publishers) Ltd and others [1990] 2 All ER 1
    9. Goodwin v United Kingdom (1996) 22 EHRR 123
  20. Chapter nineteen: Human rights III: New substantive grounds of review
  21. Chapter twenty: Human rights IV: The Human Rights Act 1998
  22. Chapter twenty-one: Human rights V: The impact of The Human Rights Act 1998
  23. Chapter twenty-two: Human rights VI: Governmental powers of arrest and detention
  24. Chapter twenty-three: Leaving the European Union

Goodwin v United Kingdom (1996) 22 EHRR 123

B. Did the interference pursue a legitimate aim?

35. It was not disputed before the Convention institutions that the aim of the impugned measures was to protect Tetra's rights and that the interference thus pursued a legitimate aim. The government maintained that the measures were also taken for the prevention of crime.

36. The Court, being satisfied that the interference pursued the first of these aims, does not find it necessary to determine whether it also pursued the second.

C. Was the interference 'necessary in a democratic society'?

37. The applicant and the Commission were of the opinion that Article 10 of the Convention required that any compulsion imposed on a journalist to reveal his source had to be limited to exceptional circumstances where vital public or individual interests were at stake. This test was not satisfied in the present case. The applicant and the Commission invoked the fact that Tetra had already obtained an injunction restraining publication, and that no breach of that injunction had occurred. Since the information in question was of a type commonly found in the business press, they did not consider that the risk of damage that further publication could cause was substantiated by Tetra, which had suffered none of the harm adverted to.

The applicant added that the information was newsworthy even though it did not reveal matters of vital public interest, such as crime or malfeasance. The information about Tetra's mismanagement, losses and loan-seeking activities was factual, topical and of direct interest to customers and investors in the market for computer software. In any event, the degree of public interest in the information could not be a test of whether there was a pressing social need to order the source's disclosure. A source may provide information of little value one day and of great value the next; what mattered was that the relationship between the journalist and the source was generating the kind of information which had legitimate news potential. This was not to deny Tetra's entitlement to keep its operations secret, if it could, but to contest that there was a pressing social need for punishing the applicant for refusing to disclose the source of the information which Tetra had been unable to keep secret.

38. The Government contended that the disclosure order was necessary in a democratic society for the protection of "the rights" of Tetra. The function of the domestic courts was both to ascertain facts and, in the light of the facts established, to determine the legal consequences which should flow from them. In the Government's view, the supervisory jurisdiction of the Convention institutions extended only to the latter. These limitations on the Convention review were of importance in the present case, where the national courts had proceeded on the basis that the applicant had received the information from his source in ignorance as to its confidential nature, although, in fact, this was something he ought to have recognised. Moreover, the source was probably the thief of the confidential business plan and had improper motives for divulging the information. In addition, the plaintiffs would suffer serious commercial damage from further publication of the information. These findings by the domestic courts were based upon the evidence which was placed before them.

It was further submitted that there was no significant public interest in the publication of the confidential information received by the applicant. Although there is a general public interest in the free flow of information to journalists, both sources and journalists must recognise that a journalist's express promise of confidentiality or his implicit undertaking of non-attributability may have to yield to a greater public interest. The journalist's privilege should not extend to the protection of a source who has conducted himself mala fide or, at least, irresponsibly, in order to enable him to pass on, with impunity, information which has no public importance. The source in the present case had not exercised the responsibility which was called for by Article 10 of the Convention. The information in issue did not possess a public interest content which justified interference with the rights of a private company such as Tetra.

Although it was true that effective injunctions had been obtained, so long as the thief and the source remained untraced, the plaintiffs were at risk of further dissemination of the information and, consequently, of damage to their business and to the livelihood of their employees. There were no other means by which Tetra's business confidence could have been protected.

In these circumstances, according to the Government, the order requiring the applicant to divulge his source and the further order fining him for his refusal to do so did not amount to a breach of the applicant's rights under Article 10 of the Convention.

39. The Court recalls that freedom of expression constitutes one of the essential foundations of a democratic society and that the safeguards to be afforded to the press are of particular importance.

Protection of journalistic sources is one of the basic conditions for press freedom, as is reflected in the laws and the professional codes of conduct in a number of Contracting States and is affirmed in several international instruments on journalistic freedoms. Without such protection, sources may be deterred from assisting the press in informing the public on matters of public interest. As a result the vital public watchdog role of the press may be undermined and the ability of the press to provide accurate and reliable information may be adversely affected. Having regard to the importance of the protection of journalistic sources for press freedom in a democratic society and the potentially chilling effect an order of source disclosure has on the exercise of that freedom, such a measure cannot be compatible with Article 10 of the Convention unless it is justified by an overriding requirement in the public interest.

These considerations are to be taken into account in applying to the facts of the present case the test of necessity in a democratic society under Article 10(2).

40. As a matter of general principle, the "necessity" for any restriction on freedom of expression must be convincingly established. Admittedly, it is in the first place for the national authorities to assess whether there is a "pressing social need" for the restriction and, in making their assessment, they enjoy a certain margin of appreciation. In the present context, however, the national margin of appreciation is circumscribed by the interest of democratic society, in ensuring and maintaining a free press. Similarly, that interest will weigh heavily in the balance in determining, as must be done under Article 10(2), whether the restriction was proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued. In sum, limitations on the confidentiality of journalistic sources call for the most careful scrutiny by the Court.

The Court's task, in exercising its supervisory function, is not to take the place of the national authorities but rather to review under Article 10 the decisions they have taken pursuant to their power of appreciation. In so doing, the Court must look at the "interference" complained of in the light of the case as a whole and determine whether the reasons adduced by the national authorities to justify it are "relevant and sufficient".

41. In the instant case, as appears from Lord Bridge's speech in the House of Lords, Tetra was granted an order for source disclosure primarily on the grounds of the threat of severe damage to their business, and consequently to the livelihood of their employees, which would arise from disclosure of the information in their corporate plan while their refinancing negotiations were still continuing. This threat, "ticking away beneath them like a time bomb", as Lord Donaldson put it in the Court of Appeal, could only be defused, Lord Bridge considered, if they could identify the source either as himself the thief of the stolen copy of the plan or as a means to lead to identification of the thief and thus put the company in a position to institute proceedings for the recovery of the missing document. The importance of protecting the source, Lord Bridge concluded, was much diminished by the source's complicity, at the very least, in a gross breach of confidentiality which was not counterbalanced by any legitimate interest in publication of the information.

42. In the Court's view, the justifications for the impugned disclosure order in the present case have to be seen in the broader context of the ex parte interim injunction which had earlier been granted to the company, restraining not only the applicant himself but also the publishers of The Engineer from publishing any information derived from the plan. That injunction had been notified to all the national newspapers and relevant journals. The purpose of the disclosure order was to a very large extent the same as that already being achieved by the injunction, namely to prevent dissemination of the confidential information contained in the plan. There was no doubt, according to Lord Donaldson in the Court of Appeal, that the injunction was effective in stopping dissemination of the confidential information by the press. Tetra's creditors, customers, suppliers and competitors would not therefore come to learn of the information through the press. A vital component of the threat of damage to the company had thus already largely been neutralised by the injunction. This being so, in the Court's opinion, in so far as the disclosure order merely served to reinforce the injunction, the additional restriction on freedom of expression which it entailed was not supported by sufficient reasons for the purposes of Article 10(2) of the Convention.

43. What remains to be ascertained by the Court is whether the further purposes served by the disclosure order provided sufficient justification.

44. In this respect it is true, as Lord Donaldson put it, that the injunction "would not effectively prevent publication to [Tetra'sl customers or competitors" directly by the applicant journalist's source (or that source's source ). Unless aware of the identity of the source, Tetra would not be in a position to stop such further dissemination of the contents of the plan, notably by bringing proceedings against him or her for recovery of the missing document, for an injunction against further disclosure by him or her and for compensation for damage.

It also had a legitimate reason as a commercial enterprise in unmasking a disloyal employee or collaborator who might have continuing access to its premises in order to terminate his or her association with the company.

45. These are undoubtedly relevant reasons. However, as also recognised by the national courts, it will not be sufficient, per se, for a party seeking disclosure of a source to show merely that he or she will be unable without disclosure to exercise the legal right or avert the threatened legal wrong on which he or she bases his or her claim in order to establish the necessity of disclosure. In that connection, the Court would recall that the considerations to be taken into account by the Convention institutions for their review under Article 10(2) tip the balance of competing interests in favour of the interest of democratic society in securing a free press. On the facts of the present case, the Court cannot find that Tetra's interests in eliminating, by proceedings against the source, the residual threat of dam age through dissemination of the confidential information otherwise than by the press, in obtaining compensation and in unmasking a disloyal employee or collaborator were, even if considered cumulatively, sufficient to outweigh the vital public interest in the protection of the applicant journalist's source. The Court does not therefore consider that the further purposes served by the disclosure order, when measured against the standards imposed by the Convention, amount to an overriding requirement in the public interest.

46. In sum, there was not, in the Court's view, a reasonable relationship of proportionality between the legitimate aim pursued by the disclosure order and the means deployed to achieve that aim.