Walrave v Koch (case 36/74)  ECR 1405
 The basic question is whether [...Articles [7, 48. 59 and Regulation 1612/68] must be interpreted in such a way that the provision in the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale relating to medium distance world championships behind motorcycles, according to which ...the pacemaker must be of the same nationality as the [cyclist] is incompatible with them.
 These questions were raised in an action directed against the [UCI] and the Dutch and Spanish cycling federations by two Dutch nationals who normally take part as pacemakers in races of the said type and who regard the aforementioned...rule of the UCI as discriminatory.
 The main question in respect of all the Articles referred to is whether the rules of an international sporting federation can be regarded as incompatible wit the Treaty.
 It has been alleged that the prohibitions in these articles refer only to restrictions which have their origin in acts of an authority and not to those resulting form legal acts of persons or associations who do not come under public law.
 Articles 7, 48, 59 have in common the prohibition in their respective spheres of application of any discrimination on the grounds of nationality .
 Prohibition of such discrimination does not only apply to the action of public authorities but extends likewise to rules of any other nature aimed at regulating in a collective manner gainful employment and the provision of services.
 The abolition as between Member States of obstacles to freedom of movement for persons and to freedom to provide services, which are fundamental objectives of the Community..., would be compromised if the abolition of barriers of national origin could be neutralised by obstacles resulting from the exercise of their legal autonomy by associations or organizations which do not come under public law
 Since, moreover, working conditions in the various Member States are governed by means of provisions laid down in law or regulations and sometimes by agreements and other acts concluded by private persons, to limit the prohibitions in question to acts of a public authority would risk creating inequality in their application".
 Although...Article 60, 62 and 64 specifically relate as provides the provision of services, to the abolition of measures by the State, this fact dos not defeat the general nature of the terms of Article 59, which makes no distinction between the source of the restrictions to be abolished.
 It is established moreover, that Article 48, relating to the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality as regards gainful employment, extends likewise to agreements and rules which do not emanate from public authorities.
 Article 7(4) of Reg 612/68 in consequence provides that the prohibition on discrimination shall apply to agreements and any other collective regulations concerning employment .