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Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
  2. Chapter one: Defining the constitution
  3. Chapter two: Parliamentary sovereignty
  4. Chapter three: The rule of law and the separation of powers
  5. Chapter four: The royal prerogative
  6. Chapter five: The House of Commons
  7. Chapter six: The House of Lords
  8. Chapter seven: The electoral system
  9. Chapter eight: Parliamentary privilege
  10. Chapter nine: Constitutional conventions
  11. Chapter ten: Local government
  12. Chapter eleven: Parliamentary sovereignty within the European Union
    1. Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Tariefcommissie (case 26/62) [1963] ECR 1.
    2. Costa v ENEL (case 6/64) [1964] ECR 585 - ECJ
    3. Costa v ENEL (case 6/64) [1964] ECR 585 - Italian Constitutional Court
    4. Franz Grad v Finanzamt Traunstein (case 9/70) [1970] ECR 825
    5. Politi SAS. v Ministry for Finance of the Italian Republic (Case 43-71) [1971] ECR 1039.
    6. Internationale Handelsgesellchaft mbH v Einfuhr- & Vorratsstelle fur Getreide & Futtermittel (Case 11/70) [1970] ECR 1125; before the ECJ
    7. Syndicat Generale des Fabricants de Semoules [1970] CMLR 395 - (French Conseil d'Etat)
    8. Internationale Handelsgesellchaft mbH v Einfuhr- & Vorratsstelle fur Getreide & Futtermittel (Solange I) [1974] 2 CMLR; (German Federal Constitutional Court)
    9. Minister for Economic Affairs v SA Fromagerie Franco-Suisse 'Le Ski' [1972] CMLR 330; before the Belgian Cour de Cassation
    10. Administration des Dounaes v Societe Cafes Jacques Vebre Jacques Vabres [1975] 2 CMLR 336 - before the French Cour de Cassation
    11. Frontini v Minister delle Finanze [1974] 2 CMLR 372 (Italian Constitutional Court)
    12. Blackburn v Attorney-General [1971] 2 All ER 1380
    13. European Communities Act 1972
    14. Van Duyn v The Home Office (case 41/74) [1974] ECR 1337.
    15. Walrave v Koch (case 36/74) [1974] ECR 1405
    16. DeFrenne v Sabeena (case 43/75) [1976] ECR 455
    17. Administrazione Dealla Finanze dello Stato v Simmenthal (case 106/77) [1978] ECR 629
    18. Minister of the Interior v Daniel Cohn-Bendit [1980] 1 CMLR 543; (before the French Conseil D'Etat)
    19. Macarthys Ltd v Smith [1979] 3 All ER 325
    20. Garland v British Rail Engineering Ltd [1982] 2 All ER 402
    21. Marshall v Southampton Area Health Authority (case 152/84) [1986] ECR 723; [1986] 1 CMLR 688.
    22. Von Colson and Kamann v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (case 14/83) [1984] ECR 1891
    23. On the Application of Wunsche Handelsgesellschaft (Solange II) [1987] 3 CMLR 225; before the German Federal Constitutional Court
    24. Marleasing SA v La Commercial Internacional de Alimentacion SA (case C-106/89) [1990] ECR I-4135
    25. Francovich and Bonifaci v Italy (cases 6/90 and 9/90) [1991] ECR I-5357; [1993] 2 CMLR 66
    26. Duke v GEC Reliance Ltd [1988] 1 All ER 626
    27. Litster and others v Forth Dry Dock and Engineering Co Ltd and another [1989] 1 All ER 1134
    28. Factortame Ltd and others v Secretary of State for Transport [1989] 2 All ER 692
    29. Factortame Ltd and others v Secretary of State for Transport (No 2) (Case C-213/89) [1991] 1 All ER 70
    30. R v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame (no.2) [1991] 1 All ER 70 (House of Lords)
    31. Thoburn v Sunderland City Council and other appeals [2002] EWHC 195 Admin; [2003] QB 151; [2002] 4 All ER 156
  13. Chapter twelve: The governance of Scotland and Wales
  14. Chapter thirteen: Substantive grounds of judicial review 1: illegality, irrationality and proportionality
  15. Chapter fourteen: Procedural grounds of judicial review
  16. Chapter fifteen: Challenging governmental decisions: the process
  17. Chapter sixteen: Locus standi
  18. Chapter seventeen: Human rights I: Traditional perspectives
  19. Chapter eighteen: Human rights II: Emergent principles
  20. Chapter nineteen: Human rights III: New substantive grounds of review
  21. Chapter twenty: Human rights IV: The Human Rights Act 1998
  22. Chapter twenty-one: Human rights V: The impact of The Human Rights Act 1998
  23. Chapter twenty-two: Human rights VI: Governmental powers of arrest and detention
  24. Chapter twenty-three: Leaving the European Union

European Communities Act 1972

S.2 (1) All such rights, powers, liabilities, obligations and restrictions from time to time created or arising by or under the Treaties, and all such remedies and procedures from time to time provided for by or under the Treaties, as in accordance with the Treaties are without further enactment to be given legal effect or used in the United Kingdom shall be recognised and available in law, and be enforced, allowed and followed accordingly; and the expression "enforceable Community right" and similar expressions shall be read as referring to one to which this subsection applies.


(2) Subject to Schedule 2 to this Act, at any time after its passing Her Majesty may by Order in Council, and any designated Minister or department may by regulations, make provision--

(a) for the purpose of implementing any Community obligation of the United Kingdom, or enabling any such obligation to be implemented, or of enabling any rights enjoyed or to be enjoyed by the United Kingdom under or by virtue of the Treaties to be exercised; or


(b) for the purpose of dealing with matters arising out of or related to any such obligation or rights or the coming into force, or the operation from time to time, of subsection (1) above;


and in the exercise of any statutory power or duty, including any power to give directions or to legislate by means of orders, rules, regulations or other subordinate instrument, the person entrusted with the power or duty may have regard to the objects of the Communities and to any such obligation or rights as aforesaid.


In this subsection "designated Minister or department" means such Minister of the Crown or government department as may from time to time be designated by Order in Council in relation to any matter or for any purpose, but subject to such restrictions or conditions (if any) as may be specified by the Order in Council....


(4) The provision that may be made under subsection (2) above includes, subject to Schedule 2 to this Act, any such provision (of any such extent) as might be made by Act of Parliament, and any enactment passed or to be passed, other than one contained in this Part of this Act, shall be construed and have effect subject to the foregoing provisions of this section; but, except as may be provided by any Act passed after this Act, Schedule 2 shall have effect in connection with the powers conferred by this and the following sections of this Act to make Orders in Council and regulations.


S.3(1) - For the purpose of all legal proceedings any question as to the meaning or effect of any of the Treaties, or as to the validity meaning or effect of any Community instrument shall be... [determined] in accordance with the principles laid down by and any relevant decision of the European Court.