Skip to main content


Grateful acknowledgement is made to all the authors and publishers of copyright material that appears in this casebook, and in particular to the following for permission to reproduce material from the sources indicated:

Parliamentary material from House of Lords Reports (UKHL) is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office on behalf of Parliament.

Council of Europe, European Court of Human Rights: extracts from European Case Reports [ECR].

Incorporated Council of Law Reporting ( extracts from the Queen's Bench Reports (QB), the Appeal Court Reports (AC), Chancery Reports (Ch) and Weekly Law Reports (WLR).

Juta & Company Ltd: extract from South African Law Reports (SALR).

News International Syndication: extract from Times Law Reports (TLR).

Oxford University Press: J Curtice: 'Turnout: electors stay at home again', (2005) Parliamentary Affairs 776.

Reed Elsevier (UK) Ltd trading as LexisNexis Butterworths: extracts from All England Law Reports (All ER), England & Wales Court of Appeal: Criminal Reports (EWCA Crim) and England & Wales Court of Appeal: Civil Reports (EWCA Civ).

Scottish Council of Law Reporting: extracts from Session Cases (SC).

Solicitors Journal, Waterlow Professional Publishing ( extract from case report Hanratty and Another v Lord Butler of Saffron Walden (1971) Solicitors Journal 381.

Sweet & Maxwell Ltd: extracts from European Human Rights Reports (EHRR) and Common Market Law Reports (CMLR).

Every effort has been made to trace and contact copyright holders prior to publication but this has not been possible in every case. If notified, the publisher will undertake to rectify any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity.